Card Set Information

2013-04-29 10:04:14

for test on medicine and society
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  1. In patients with a BMI greater than____ kg/m2, there is little additional risk from elevated waist circumference
    35 kg/m2
  2. At the present time, the most commonly encountered nutritional problem seen in clinicalpractices in the United States and many developed countries is
    obesity and its associated complications.
  3. Tests to perform for alcoholism
    ALT, alanine amino transferase; AST, aspartate amino transferase; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; thiamine, folate, vitamine b12
  4. Tests to perform for anemia
    Complete blood count, CBC, serum iron and ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), reticulocyte count, red blood cell folate, and serum vitamin B12
  5. Test to perform for Diabetes
    Fasting serum glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum and urinary ketone bodies
  6. Tests to perform for Eating Disorders
    Potassium, albumin, serum amylase, thyroid studies, beta carotene aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and anemia.
  7. Tests for Fluid, Electrolyte, and Renal Function
    Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urine urea nitrogen, urinary and serum, oxalic acid, and uric acid
  8. Tests for Hyperlipidemia
    : Cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C) , high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HCL-C), homocysteine, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (secondary cause).
  9. Test for Musculoskeletal pain, weakness
    25(OH) vitamin D, phosphate, PTH
  10. Test for malabsorption
    24-hour fecal fat, barium studies, electrolytes, albumin, serum triglyceride, and hydrogen breath test
  11. Test for metabolic syndrome
    Fasting serum glucose, lipid panel, and uric acid
  12. Test for refeeding syndrome
    Albumin, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, and potassium
  13. The half life of serum albumin is approximately ____ days and is indicative of nutritional status over previous ___ months
    18 to 20 days ; 1-2 months [not a good indicator of recent dietary status or acute changes in nutritional status (less than 3 weeks)]
  14. What levels of serum albumin are indicative of increased mortality/morbidity
    <3.5 mg/dL
  15. The half life of serum transferrin is approximately ____ days and is indicative of ____, ____, and ___ intake over the previous ____
    8-9 days; iron, protein, and calorie intake; 1-2 weeks
  16. Half life of serum prealbumin is ___ days and is indicative of ___ and ____ intake over previous _____.
    2-3 days; protein and calorie intake; previous week. Note: Prealbumin levels may be falsely elevated with renal disease. However, as with albumin, the level is reduced with severe liver disease
  17. Main Dietary deficiency in Pregnancy
  18. Main Dietary deficiency in Alcoholism
    Folate, Vitamin B12, Thiamine
  19. Main Dietary deficiency in Anemia
    Iron, vitamin B12, folate
  20. Main Dietary deficiency in Ascites
    Sodium, protein
  21. Main Dietary deficiency in Beri Beri
  22. Main Dietary deficiency in COPD/asthma
    Vitamin D, Calcium
  23. Main Dietary issues in Kidney Stones
    Uric Acid, oxalate, calcium
  24. Main Dietary deficiency in Pellagra
  25. Main Dietary deficiency in Malabsorption
    Vitamins A, D, E, K
  26. Dong Auai/warfarin interaction
    Increased INR and bruising
  27. Siberian ginseng/digoxin interaction
    Raised digoxin concentrations
  28. Gingko biloba/ASA/warfarin interaction
    Spontaneous bleeding
  29. Ginseng/warfarin interaction
    Decreased INR
  30. St. John’s wart /SSRIs /OCTs /Indinavir /cyclosporine interactions
    Serotonin syndrome/Decreased serum drug levels
  31. Yohimbine/tricyclic antidepressants interactions
  32. The main target of herbal toxicity is
    The liver
  33. Asian and American Ginseng is used as
    An adaptive treatment for emotional changes and stress. Efficacy has not been established
  34. Black Cohosh is used for
    Treatment of menopause and a replacement for hormone therapy. Studies contradict its ability to relieve menopausal symptoms. Side effects: minimal gastric distress
  35. Soy protein is used as
    A hormone replacement therapy alternative and menopausal treatment. Physicians believe it is safe to use
  36. Chamomile is used as
    A calming agent, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasmodic agent. Often used to treat colic and used topically in cases of skin disorders. Side effects: can cause allergic reactions in those allergic to ragweed
  37. Echinacea is used to treat
    Mild upper respiratory illness. Data suggests its use shortens duration of illness. Patients with Autoimmune disorders should not use due to its immune stimulating efffects.
  38. Ephedra (Ma Huang) is used for
    Asthma, nasal congestion, and weight loss. Side effects: arrhythmia, tremor, hypertension. Death has been reported. Usually not recommended
  39. Ginger is used for
    Motion sickness, and digestive aid for indigestion. No known clinical side effects. Shows significant capacity to prevent and treat motion sickness
  40. Garlic is used to
    Treat infections, heart disease, and diabetes. Also used as an anti-thrombritic agent and anti-oxidant. Long term beneficial effects have not been established. Side effects: bad breath and body odor, risk factor for bleeding, flatulence, indigestion.
  41. Gingko is used for
    Cognitive function, treat dementia and Alzheimer's in the elderly, premenopausal syndrome (PMS), vascular insufficiency. Side effects: mild gastrointestinal symptoms, such as constipation, stomach upset, and allergic skin reactions. More research needed to prove efficacy for dementia
  42. Milk thistle is used as
    A hepatoprotectant in patients with viral hepatitis as well as cirrhosis of the liver from alcoholism
  43. Diets that lead to high body fat is a risk factor for which cancers?
    Colon cancer, Breast cancer, Prostate Cancer. In the United States, a very high caloric diet is consumed with 37% of the calories coming from fat.
  44. Dietary Protein intake is associated with which forms of cancer.
    Breast, colon, kidney, uterus, prostate
  45. Which vitamin plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation, particularly of epithelial (skin) tissue, and is linked to lowering cancer risk?
    Vitamin A
  46. What are the best food sources for vitamin A?
    Butter, milk, and liver
  47. Which vitamins prevent the formation of N-Nitroso compounds and act as anti-oxidants?
    Vitamins C & E- also reduce the risk factor for cancers of the mouth and stomach
  48. Cervical Dysplasia was found in women whose diet was deficient in what vitamin?
    Vitamin C
  49. More than ___ g of fiber should not be consumed in a day.
    35g/day can cause intestinal discomfort and obstruction
  50. Food sources of flavanoids include....
    soybeans and citrus fruits
  51. Polyphenols are found in high amounts in
  52. Indoles are found in high concentration in...
  53. Isothiocyanate is found in...
    Broccoli and cruciferous vegetables
  54. Organo-sulfur compounds are found in.....
    allium plants, garlic and onions