Middle Adulthood

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Middle Adulthood
2013-04-28 20:25:04
lifespan development psychology developmental middle adulthood westmont gurney andrea

FINAL middle adulthood 4/29
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  1. Senescence
    • the inevitable and gradual decline in all body parts due to aging
    • doesn't necessarily cause illness/impairment
  2. Causes of Severe Brain Loss
    • drug abuse
    • poor circulation
    • viruses
    • genes
  3. Skin and Hair
    • skin: dryer, rougher, less regular in color
    • collagen decreases 1%/year starting at age 20 
    • at 30 skin is thinner and less flexible 
    • fat slows down wrinkling
    • Hair: turns grey starting at 40 and thins. body hair becomes lighter and thinner. unwanted thick hairs may appear on chin or nose
  4. Body Shape
    • middle aged spread: gradual increase in weight circumference
    • muscles weaken, by the end of middle age people are shorter 
    • better at marathons than sprints, better at long exercises than short difficult ones
  5. Vision
    • peripheral vision narrows fastest
    • color vision becomes reduced 
    • nearsightedness goes first in the 20's, then farsightedness in the 40's 
    • longer for eyes to adjust to darkness
  6. Hearing
    • Presbycusis: significant loss of hearing associated with senescence, usually not apparent until age 60, whisper test
    • hearing is most acute at age 10 
    • high frequencies lost first 
    • hearing loss has earlier onset now bc of MP3 etc
  7. Fertility
    • 15% of couples are infertile (1/3 womens issue, 1/3 men, 1/3 unknown)
    • infertility: unable to conceive after 1 year of trying
  8. Fertility Treatments
    • ART: assisted reproductive technology
    • IVF: type of ART, fertilizing an egg outside the womb and then placing it in the womb
    • other types of ART: donor sperm or donor ova, donor wombs, etc.
  9. Menopause
    • point in which ovulation and menstruation stop 
    • hysterectomy: removal of the uterus and often ovaries as well
    • can lead to 'new zest' or depression
    • Hormone Replacement Therapy: taking hormones to alleviate symptoms of menopause or fight osteoperosis, heart disease, etc. (mixed data about effectiveness)
  10. Andropause
    • a term coined to signify drop in testosterone levels in older men which results in lowered sexual desire and muscle mass 
    • word is misleading because women experience drastic drop whereas men experience gradual decline
  11. Drug Abuse
    • drug abuse of marijuana and recreational drugs goes down--prescription drug abuse goes up 
    • Tobacco: all tobacco is bad for you, men have experienced a decline in smokers but women have experienced and increase 
    • Alcohol: alcohol can be good in moderation, international stats are varied (muslim countries have very low alcoholism--developing countries are higher)
  12. Overeating
    • metabolism decreases by 1/3 between 20 and 60, so eating should as well
    • adults are gaining 1-2 pounds/year
    • increases risk of every chronic disease 
    • 66% of US adults are overweight
  13. Stressor
    • any situation, event, experience, or other stimulus that causes a person to feel stressed. 
    • not all stress becomes a stressor, and not all stressors are stressors for everyone
    • increase bad habits: drug use, overeating, under exercising
    • affects the entire body
  14. Problem Focused Coping
    • a strategy to deal with stress by tacking the stressful situation directly
    • men and young people more likely to do this
  15. Emotion Focused Coping
    • a strategy to deal with stress by changing feelings about the stressor rather than changing the stressor itself 
    • women and adults do this more
  16. Allostatic Load
    • total, combined burden of physiological stresses that an individual lives with 
    • increases disease
  17. Weathering
    gradual accumulation of stressors over time which wear down the resilience and resistance of a person
  18. Help in Stress
    • social support
    • well rested, nourished, and exercised
    • analyze alternatives
    • take control
    • find meaning
  19. Public Health
    • benefiting health on large scale
    • immunization, monitoring food and water supply, etc.
  20. Mortality
    number of deaths per year per 1,000 in a given population
  21. Morbidity
    Disease. rate of diseases in a given population
  22. DALYs
    • disability adjusted life-years 
    • a measure of the reduced quality of life caused by disability
  23. Vitality
    measure of health that refers to how healthy an energetic someone actual feels
  24. General Intelligence (g)
    • Charles Spearman 
    • assumes that intelligence is one basic trait underlying all cognitive abilities
    • people have varying levels of it
  25. Cross Sectional IQ Research
    • First half of 20th century, many researchers saw intelligence peak around 18-20 and gradually decline to due cross-sectional research
    • US Army had most famous test on draftees in WWI
  26. Longitudinal Research on IQ
    • cross-sectional research was deemed invalid because of the rapid progression of schooling (most of the old people in the CS research dropped out of high school) 
    • longitudinal says intelligence has a gradual increase
    • problem: they get used to intelligence testing and therefore become better at it; also, dropout rate
  27. Cross-Sequential Research on IQ
    Seattle Longitudinal Study: first cross-sequential IQ test that says that overall, every aspect of intelligence gradually decreases with age but then as elderly it decreases
  28. Fluid Intelligence
    • types of basic intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick and thorough
    • short term memory, abstract though, speed of thinking are part of fluid intelligence 
    • intelligence that makes you a good learner
  29. Crystallized Intelligence
    • intellectual ability that reflect accumulated learning
    • (often this is what increases over age)
    • the reason IQ stays relatively steady is because increase in this and decrease in fluid level it out
  30. Sternberg 3 Forms of Intelligence
    • Analytic: info processing, strategy selection, focused attention, etc.
    • Creative: capacity to be flexible and innovative
    • Practical:intellectual skills that are a part of everyday problem solving
  31. Selective Optimization without Compensation
    (Baltes) people maintain balance by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses to become more proficient in what they can already do well
  32. Selective Expert
    someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful
  33. Expert Thought
    • our culture defines what it is important to be an expert in 
    • 1: intuitive
    • 2: automatic
    • 3: strategic
    • 4: flexible
  34. Women's Work
    formerly used term to denigrate domestic and caregiving tasks that were once thought to be the responsibility of females
  35. Maslow's Hierarchy
    • Self Actualization
    • Success and Esteem
    • Love and Belonging
    • Safety
    • Physiology
  36. Midlife Crisis
    supposed period of unusual anxiety, radical self-reexamination that was once widely associated with middle age but actually had more to do with development than age
  37. Big Five Personality Traits
    • Openness: curious, artistic, creative, open
    • Conscientiousness: organized, deliberate, conforming, self-disciplined
    • Extroversion: outgoing, assertive, active
    • Agreeableness: kind, helpful, easygoing
    • Neuroticism: anxious, moody, etc.
  38. Ecological Niche
    the particular lifestyle and social context that adults settle into because it is compatible with their individual personality needs and interests
  39. Social Convoy
    the family members, friends, acquaintances  and even strangers who move through life with an individual
  40. consequential strangers
    people who are not in a person's closest friendship circle but have an impact
  41. Familism
    the belief that family members should support one another, sacrificing individual freedom and success in order to preserve family unity
  42. Fictive Kin
    someone who becomes a part of the family with no blood relation
  43. Empty Nest
    time in lives of parents when their children have left the family home to pursue separate lives
  44. kinkeeper
    a caregiver who takes responsibility for maintaining communication among family members
  45. sandwich generation
    generation who are squeezed by the needs of elderly above them but also by the younger children
  46. Extrinsic reward of work
    tangible benefits of work (salary, health insurance, etc)
  47. Intrinsic Rewards of Work
    the intangible gratifications of work (self-esteem, pride, job satisfaction)
  48. flextime
    an arrangement in which work schedules are flexible so employees can balance personal and occupational responsibilities
  49. telecommuting
    working at home and keeping in touch via computer,telephone, etc.