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Someone with an issue in Broca's area has what speech pattern?
Long pauses between words and poor articulation
A person with long pauses between words and poor articulation could have damage to what brain part?
A person with fluid speech and no comprehnsion likely has a disorder in what part of the brain?
When brain areas associated with speech are destroyed what can alleviate the issue?
Duplicated systems or plastic changes in other parts of the brain that compensate
Can you comprehend someone with Broca's aphasia?
What type of brain damage does a person have who has halting speech with long pauses, a tendency to repeat themselves and disordered grammar?
Damage to Broca's area
What type of brain damage is implicated with a person who cannot understand you?
Damage to Wernicke's area
What is tolerance?
Habituation due to substance abuse
What is Withdrawal?
Physiological changes, discomfort and adverse effects that coincide with drug removal
How can tolerance to a drug occur?
- change in number of receptors
- Increase in enzymes that break the drug down
- Endogenous ligand antagonist
Psychoactive drugs with a similar structure to serotonin or dopamine act on what part of the body?
Serotonin or dopamine receptors
Why do serotonin or dopamine like drugs last longer in the system?
They are often not subject to enzymatic breakdown as fast as the real thing or they have a greater affinity for the receptors
What are the seven symptoms of dependence?
- Withdrawal symptoms
- Larger more frequent doses
- Persistent desire
- Excessive time aquiring medication
- Reduced occupational or social activities
- Physical and psychological problems associated
What are the top dependencies in the US?
Tobacco and alcohol
What has caused tobacco dependency to drop?
- Increased awareness of lung caner
- Laws against public smoking
What is the primary mechanism by which psychoactive drugs change behavior?
Alterations in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway
The malfunction of the limbic system is associated with what general type of disprder?
What is an affective disorder?
Mental disorder characterized by dramatic changes or extremes of mood
What is the Hebbian rule?
repeated stimulation of a pathway increases the synaptic strength of that pathway
What are the neural mechanism for learning?
- changes in neural parameters (threshold, time constants)
- creation of new synapses
- elimination of synapses
- changes in the synaptic weights or connection strengths
What does it mean that the function is lateralized in aphasia?
Right handed individuals have left side aphasia and vice versa