chapter 8.txt

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Johnemt
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chapter 8.txt
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2013-04-29 00:08:12
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chapter 8
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  1. Aron Ralston's plight
    trapped under a rock and amputated his arm with a pen
  2. Drive reduction theory
    • people lack a basic biological requirement
    • drive to obtain water, food, sleep
  3. Homeostasis
    Basic motivation, underlies primary drives; body’s tendency to maintain steady, internal state.
  4. Incentive approaches to motivation
    Motivation to attain valued external goals or incentives
  5. Arousal approaches to motivation
    • Maintain level of simulation and activity
    • Increasing or reducing them as necessary
  6. Intrinsic Motivation (Internal)
    We choose activity for our own enjoyment
  7. Extrinsic Motivation (External)
    We perform for external, concrete, tangible rewards
  8. Maslow's hierarchy of needs in order
    • Physiological needs - sex
    • safety needs - secure enviroment
    • love and belongingness - feeling wanted/acknowledged
    • esteem - sense of self worth/ confidence
    • self-actualization - self fulfillment and satisfaction
  9. obesity: definition, incidence, possible explanations
    Occurs due to: social factors, higher weight set points, abnormal amount of fat cells at birth
  10. Weight Set Point
    Level of weight, body strives to maintain
  11. Weight Settling Point
    From genetic heritage & environment in which we live
  12. role of leptin
    Hormone Leptin set prevents weight loss
  13. Anorexia nervosa
    Severe eating disorder, may refuse to eat
  14. Bulimia
    Disorder- person binges on large quantities of food, then purge
  15. Androgens
    Male sex hormones steadily secreted by the testes
  16. Estrogen, progesterone
    Female sex hormone (ovaries)
  17. Kinsey-sexual orientation continuum
    Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale
  18. learning theory approach to sexual orientation transsexual
    Believe they should have been born with the other gender
  19. need for achievement & task performance
    Stable, learned characteristic; satisfaction-striving for & attaining excellence
  20. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    Telling stories from vague pictures
  21. need for affiliation
    Interest in establishing & maintain relationships with people
  22. need for power & differences in men and women
    Tendency to seek control or influence over others; to be seen as powerful individual
  23. emotion, function served, basic emotions
    • preparing us for action - link between events and responses
    • shaping our future behavior
    • help us interact better with others
  24. James-Lange Theory
    • Emotions (2nd), result of physiological changes (1st)
    • Activation of visceral bodily changes
    • Brain interprets visceral changes as emotional experience
  25. Cannon Bard Theory
    • Physiological arousal & emotional experience - simultaneous
    • Activated of thalamus
    • Activation of bodily changes in response to brain & message to cortex regarding emotional experience
  26. Schachter Singer Theory
    • *Physiological arousal (epinephrine shot) – mirror emotions of others.
    • Depends: environmental events of arousal*
    • Activation of general physiological arousal
    • Observation of environmental cues
    • Determination of label to place on arousal, identifying emotional experience
  27. facial affect program; universal emotion expression
    Activation of a set of nerve impulses that make the face display the appropriate expression
  28. facial feedback hypothesis
    The hypothesis that facial expressions not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotions
  29. polygraph
    Electronic device designed to expose lying

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