Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

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Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
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2013-04-29 04:10:29
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NMIH201 nFluid nElectrolyte Balance nNursing nScience Modules
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NMIH201 Science Module Quiz Questions on Fluid and Electrolyte balances
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  1. The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
    1. calcium ions
    2. potassium ions
    3. hydrogen ions
    4. sodium ions
    4. sodium ions
  2. In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic
    pressure ________.
    A) and osmotic pressure are the same
    B) generally forces fluid from the interstitial space into the capillaries
    C) is completely canceled out by osmotic pressure
    D) is the same as capillary blood pressure
    D) is the same as capillary blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which of the following statements is correct regarding diffusion?
    A) The rate of diffusion is independent of temperature.
    B) The greater the concentration of gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.
    C) Molecular weight of a substance does not affect the rate of diffusion.
    D) The lower the temperature, the faster the diffusion rate.
    B) The greater the concentration of gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Passive membrane transport processes include ________.
    A) the use of transport proteins when moving substances from areas of low to high concentration
    B) consumption of ATP
    C) movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
    D) movement of water from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
    C) movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in ________.
    A) an isotonic solution
    B) a hypotonic solution
    C) a hypertonic solution
    D) blood plasma
    C) A hypertonic solution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The model of describing the structure of the cell membrane is known as the _____.
    A) Mosaic tile model
    B) Sandwich model
    C) Fabric model
    D) Fluid mosaic model
    D) Fluid Mosaic Model
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The sodium-potassium pump __________.
    A) pumps Na- and K+ into the cell
    B) pumps Na+ out of and K+ into the cell
    C) pumps Na+ and K + out of the cell 
    D) pumps Na+ into and K+ out of the cell
    B) Pumps Na+ out and K- into the cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ____ is found in the intracellular fluid.
    A) Potassium
    B) Iron
    C) Chloride
    D) Magnesium
    A) Potassium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
    A) There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts
    B) Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts. 
    C) Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts.
    D) Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body.
    B) Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following statements best summarizes the relationship
    between the sodium content of fluids and water movement?
    A. Salt follows water.
    B. Water follows salt.
    C. Water solubilises salt.
    D. Water equals salt.
    B. Water follows salt.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The term hypotonic hydration refers to ________.
    A) the feeling one might have after a long swim
    B) a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water
    C) the unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much liquor
    D) a condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment
    B) a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which is the most potent stimulus for thirst
    A) The sight of a cold drink
    B) An increase in plasma osmolarity
    C) Dry mouth
    D) An increase in blood volume
    B) An increase in plasma osmolarity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. When ADH levels are low, the kidneys produce _________ urine. 
    A) Concentrated
    B) Dilute
    C) A low volume of
    D) Isotonic
    B) Dilute
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water
    conservation in the kidneys?
    A. aldosterone
    B. antidiuretic hormone
    C. thymosin
    D. atrial natriuretic peptide
    B. antidiuretic hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma
    proteins. This problem is often characterized by ________.
    A) nerve damage
    B) extreme weight gain
    C) tissue oedema
    D) extreme weight loss
    C) Tissue oedema
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of
    sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?

    A. renin
    B. erythropoietin
    C. aldosterone
    D. antidiuretic hormone
    C. Aldosterone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of
    the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
    A) reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
    B) activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism
    C) prevent pH changes caused by organic acids
    D) enhance atrial contractions
    A) reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The most abundant cation of the ECF is _______ and the most abundant anion in the ECF is _______. 
    A) Ca2+; SO42–
    B) Na+; Cl–
    C) K+; HPO42–
    D) Mg2+; HCO3–
    B) Na+; Cl–
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and
    potassium between cells and body fluids?
    A) equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids
    B) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body fluids
    C) Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids
    D) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
    D) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.
    A) the pH of the ICF
    B) potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
    C) the potassium ion content in the renal tubule cells
    D) intracellular sodium levels
    B) potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. The regulation of sodium ______.
    A) involves aldosterone, a hormone that increase sodium excretion in the kidneys
    B) is due to specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus
    C) involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion concentration.
    D) is linked to blood pressure
    D) is linked to blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The regulation of potassium balance _______.
    A) is accomplished mainly by hepatic mechanisms
    B) includes renal secretion, but never absorption
    C) involves aldosterone induced secretion of potassium
    D) is not linked to sodium balance
    C) involves aldosterone induced secretion of potassium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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