Governance Chapter 4

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  1. one-person, one-vote
    The principle that each legislative district within a state should have the same number of eligible voters so that representation is equitably based on population.
  2. state constitution
    The document that describes the basic policies, procedures, and institutions of the government of a specific state, much as the U.S. Constitution does for the federal government.
  3. political machine
    An organization designed to solicit votes from certain neighborhoods or communities for a particular political party in return for services and jobs if that party wins.
  4. Progressive movement
    Advocated measures to destroy political machines and instead have voters participate directly in the nomination of candidates and the establishment of public policy.
  5. governor
    Chief elected executive in state government.
  6. package or general veto
    The authority of a chief executive to reject an entire bill that has been passed by the legislature.
  7. line-item veto
    The authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending. Ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
  8. pardon
    An executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime.
  9. commute
    The action of a governor to cancel all or part of the sentence of someone convicted of a crime, while keeping the conviction on the record.
  10. parole
    The authority of a governor to release a prisoner before his or her full sentence has been completed and to specify conditions that must be met as part of the release.
  11. extradite
    To send someone against his or her will to another state to face criminal charges.
  12. term limits
    Restrictions that exist in some states about how long an individual may serve in state or local elected offices.
  13. Missouri (Merit) Plan
    A method of selecting judges in which a governor must appoint someone from a list provided by an independent panel. Judges are then kept in office if they get a majority of "yes" votes in general elections.
  14. Dillon's Rule
    A court ruling that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty but instead must be authorized by state government.
  15. municipality
    A government with general responsibilities, such as city, town, or village, which is created in response to the emergence of relatively densely populated areas.
  16. charter
    A document that, like a constitution, specifies the basic policies, procedures, and institutions of a municipality.
  17. county
    Geographic district created within a state with a government that has general responsibilities for land, welfare, environment, and, where appropriate, rural service policies.
  18. special district
    A local government that is responsible for a particular function, such as schools, water, sewerage, or parks.
  19. town meeting
    Form of local government in which all eligible voters are invited to attend a meeting and vote on policy and management issues.
  20. mayor
    Chief elected executive of a city.
  21. city council
    The legislature in a city government.
  22. manager
    A professional executive hired by a city council or county board to manage daily operations and to recommend policy changes.
  23. public corporation (authority)
    Government organization established to provide a particular service to run a particular facility that is independent of other city or state agencies and is to be operated like a business. Examples include a port authority or a mass transit system.
  24. commission
    Form of local government in which several officials are elected to top positions that have both legislative and executive responsibilities.
  25. nonpartisan election
    A contest in which political parties do not nominate candidates and ballots do not include any party identification of those running for office.
  26. district-based election
    Election in which candidates run for an office that represents only the voters of a specific district within the jurisdiction.
  27. at-large election
    Election in which candidates for office must compete throughout the jurisdiction as a whole.
  28. initiative
    An election that allows citizens to propose legislation or state constitutional amendments by submitting them to the electorate for popular vote.
  29. referendum
    An election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation or state constitutional amendments to the voters for approval.
  30. recall
    An election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office prior to the next scheduled election.
  31. domestic dependent nation
    A type of sovereignty that places an American Indian tribe in the United States outside the authority of state governments but reliant on the federal government for the interpretation and application of treaty provisions.
  32. trust relationship
    The legal obligation of the federal government to protect the interests of American Indian tribes.
  33. reservation land
    Land designated in a treaty that is under the authority of an American Indian nation and is exempt from most state laws and taxes.
  34. trust land
    Land owned by an American Indian nation and designated by the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs as exempt from most state laws and taxes.
  35. compact
    A formal, legal agreement, as that between a state and tribe.
  36. balanced budget
    A budget in which the legislature balances expenditures with expected revenues with no deficit.
  37. progressive tax
    The lax level increases with the wealth or ability of an individual or business to pay.
  38. regressive tax
    The tax level increases as the wealth or ability of an individual or business to pay decreases.
  39. segregated funds
    Money that comes in from a certain tax or fee and then is restricted to a specific use, such as a gasoline tax that is used for road maintenance.
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Governance Chapter 4
2013-04-29 14:39:35
Governance Chapter terms

Chapter 4 terms
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