Identify/discuss the role of mobile AND OTHER media in demonstrations and rapid political change in places the Philippines (2001), South Korea (2002), and Spain (2004).
(Castells) Philippines (2001): They removed the president from power. mobile phone is able to be more efficient than other communication channels as an agent of political movement. HOWEVER, texting has serious limitations: it allows short messages to be copied and distributed quickly with little editing or elaboration. Thus, if a revolution were to take place, it would need other traditional media as well. Mobile phone limited due to digital divide.