Exam 2

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  1. What are the norms for mobile phone use on Japanese public transportation? (author, norms, example)
    • 1) Okabe
    • 2) The norms consist of email or text, voice is strongly discouraged. Voice calls if taken are short, very quiet and discret.
    • 3) Ex. One passneger uses a magazine as portable involvement shield, when taking a call.
  2. How did these norms w. keitai on the subway develop & how are they enforced?
    • 1) Developed through a complex interaction between various social actors: public transportation orgs, keitai teens, adults in positions of power, signage, announcements, discourse in mass media, changing keitai technology.  
    • 2) enforced by various social actors.
  3. What theory is applied to keitai in public transportation and why?
    Affordance theory: There are various tech features, these make things possible, but these things are only possible because society is using them.
  4. (ito) what are some other key ways that individuals use mobile media to relate to urban spaces?
    • Cocooning:attached to person not space, cocoons transform 'dead time' into a time that is personally enriching.  iPod's block people out. camping: people create encampments, bring bigger technology
    • foot printing: membership cards.  businesses provide loyalty cards hoping people will develop a personal relationship with the place. Also, four squaring, deals that give you 10 percent off if you say you checked in
  5. Identify/discuss the role of mobile AND OTHER media in demonstrations and rapid political change in places the Philippines (2001), South Korea (2002), and Spain (2004).
    (Castells) Philippines (2001): They removed the president from power.  mobile phone is able to be more efficient than other communication channels as an agent of political movement.  HOWEVER, texting has serious limitations: it allows short messages to be copied and distributed quickly with little editing or elaboration. Thus, if a revolution were to take place, it would need other traditional media as well. Mobile phone limited due to digital divide.
  6. Identify/discuss the role of mobile AND OTHER media in demonstrations and rapid political change in places the Philippines (2001), South Korea (2002), and Spain (2004).
    • (Castells) 
    • In electing the President, targeting the 386ers.  Mobile comm functioned as catalyst for mobilizing existing youth to go vote.  However, must be understood in the context of online bulletin boards.
  7. Identify/discuss the role of mobile AND OTHER media in demonstrations and rapid political change in places the Philippines (2001), South Korea (2002), and Spain (2004).
    mobile communication helped citizens look at global news to see what was really happening in their corrupt government.  It rings a warning bell to gov and mainstream media (who also tried to cover the terrorist attack up).
  8. What are the causal recipes Hussain refers to in Arab springs?
    • 1. Fuel Dependent Economy
    • 2. Mobile phone use
    • 3. Long Term internet enabled society is MOST important. Youtube served a role.
    • 4. Regional news
  9. Identify the use of mobile phones in political movements of Arab Springs:
    • (1) every case, incidents of Arab Spring were digitally mediated in some way.
    • (2) Information infrastructure: mobile phones, personal computers, and social media were part of the causal story.  
    • (3) Countries without digital media are less likely to experience popular movements for democracy.
  10. What is Gergen’s argument about how mobile communication plays a role in the democratic process?
    He brings up the idea of cocooning in a way, saying our social groups are smaller and more like minded leading to circular affirmation.

    We went from autonomy to relational.
  11. What are two trajectories of circular affirmation Gergen talks about?
    • political detachment (Life outside the monadic group recedes in significance)
    • dialogic disruption (people of monadic groups are rewarded for bring news that supports the dominant ideology, deliberation on opposing ideas is replaced by tendencies toward consensus).
  12. (Gergen) Democracy structure used to be:

    Now it's:
    Gov -> Media -> Civil society - and individuals

    Gov -> media -> mittelbau and monadic clusters

    In monadic clusters, political issues recede in importance. Debate is replaced by diatribe
  13. What four main benefits did Chib's article find about the mobile phone?
    • 1. Opportunity production: greater time and efficiency via mobile phone
    • 2. Capabilities enhancement: helped flow of communication in emergencies
    • 3. Social enabling: 
    • 4. Knowledge generation: Information exchange
  14. What four main barriers did Chib's article find about the mobile phone?
    • 1. Infrastructure: power outages
    • 2. social: gender relations, religions
    • 3. technological: low familiarity with advanced tech systems
    • 4. economic: cost of buying hardware
  15. What was Chib about?
    Implementing mobile phones into Indian healthcare systems
  16. From the Donner et al. reading, why is mobile internet important for people in South Africa?
    To engage in communication: there are many promises of the mobile phones capabilities in terms of employment, healthcare, efficiency, etc.
  17. (Donner et al) How do they use it? (here I am asking a broad question about people in S. Africa, not the specific participants in the study.)
    They most often use MXit, an instant messaging application usable via mobile internet.  It's cheaper than texting.
  18. What did they do for the research for this study and what did they find?
    They tried to train 8 women how to use a mobile phone in order to search for jobs.Participants retained the knowledge, but none had secured a job.
  19. Based on those findings, what can you conclude about the promise and shortcomings of mobile internet in South Africa?
    • Handsets feature functionality is limited. Even if everything goes right technically, success is still not guaranteed. Affordability is a problem.  Service could be lost. There are design challenges
    • Promises: raises self esteem, expands digital literacy
  20. What is Katz & Aakhus’ theory?
    • Apparatgeist: Spirit of the machine--guides the way we think and use technology
    • It’s fueled by perpetual contact.  At the core is the ideal of pure communication. Not tech determinism but rather suggests technology constrains the possibility an individual has, like a cafeteria menu (finite choices).
  21. A trait of apparatgeist is:
    Interactions with technology create certain conceptual perspectives in people’s minds, and these are consistent across cultures.
  22. In what ways does Campbell's article (cross cultures) support and/or not support Katz & Aakhus’ theory?
    • there are universals or near-universals in the way people perceive the role of communication in their lives
    • -there is an international culture of the mobile phone that spans continents
    • -there is an international teen culture in which the mobile phone plays a role
    • -Cultural characteristics play key role in how people make sense of their social reality.
  23. Goffman's idea of performance:

    Three different levels of involvement:
    Front stage and back stage:

    1) fully focused 2) partially-focused 3) multi-focused.

    Goffman's hypothesis supported. Cultural similarites lend support for Apparatgeist
  24. Ling's taken for grantedness?
    It went from being useful, to essential, to taken for granted. 

    • A. Usage: safety, micro coordination, hyper coordination
    • B. Bounded solidarity and ritual interaction
    • tech has shifted, people get phones for relational needs not just usage purposes.

    The outcome of ritual interaction as bounded solidarity
  25. What does Ling compare the mobile phone to?
    • Time keeping
    • Reification: extreme step of objectification: the clock is the most reified technology.
  26. Taken for grantedness and hope?
    Ling says the mobile phone also provides a weird sense of hope
  27. According to LaRose, what is a habit?
    • media habits are acquired by repeating media consumption behavior that is initially goal directed.
    • Habits are unconscious and automatic responses to stimuli, acting alone or together with conscious intentions framed by expected outcomes to determine behavior.
  28. What are four aspects of automaticity?
    • 1. Lack of attention
    • 2. lack of intentionality
    • 3. lack of awareness
    • 4. lack of control
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Exam 2
2013-04-29 17:14:15

Exam 2
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