Counseling Theories 641 Final

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Counseling Theories 641 Final
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Counseling Theories 641 Final
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  1. What is the view of human nature in CBT?
    • Neutral
    • behavior determined by environment
    • constructivist theory, creation of meaning is from experiences
  2. what are the goals of therapy in CBT?
    • Reduce of eliminate maladaptive behavior
    • teach or increase the incidence of adaptive responses
    • teach client's problem solving strategies they can use across situations
    • "dead man rule"- never ask a client to do something a dead person can do
  3. What is role of assessment in CBT?
    • Uses standardized self-report inventories
    • measures schema related core beliefs/assumptions
    • no formal diagnosis unless needed by 3rd party
  4. What is the role of the counselor in CBT?
    • Expert
    • acts a model for the client
    • active
    • directive
  5. What is the role of the client in CBT?
    • Student
    • expected to work and learn about CT
    • co-therapist
  6. What is the nature of the relationship in CBT?
    • collaborative
    • warm, genuine, trust, respect
    • collaborative empiricism
    • client and counselor are "co- investigators" in study of client's difficulties
  7. What techniques are associated with CBT?
    • Homework
    • Questioning
    • Activity Scheduling
    • Social Skills training
    • problem solving
    • role playing
    • ¬†modeling
    • exposure therapy
    • desensitization
    • self control
    • reinforcement
  8. What happens in CBT?
    • 3 stages
    • 1. Behavioral Activation- establish working relationship, set goals, and socialize client
    • 2. Automatic thoughts and their relationship to client's emotional behavior
    • 3. schematic processing
    • guided discovery- therapist has an idea about were client needs to end up and through questioning helps client get there.
  9. What is the evaluation of CBT?
    strengths and weaknesses
    • Strengths- Effective, testable, useful on a wide range of client problems, massive data available
    • Weaknesses- neglect of client's past, ignores client emotions
  10. What are the applications of CBT?
    Wide range of client problems
  11. What are the central constructs of CBT?
    • Behavioral learning (classical/operant conditioning)
    • Observational learning
    • Schemas
    • Beliefs
    • Automatic Thoughts
    • Modes- 4 primal modes
  12. What is the view of human nature in REBT?
    • Neutral- "a little bit of God and the devil in all of us"
    • people can control their thoughts, feelings, behaviors
  13. What is the role of assessment in REBT?
    • Formal assessment based on DSM4, formulate a case conceptualization
    • self report to assess beliefs
    • informal "what brings you to therapy"
    • in vivo assessment- outside office and in a setting relative to the problem
  14. What is the role of the counselor in REBT?
    • honest
    • direct, active
    • teacher for ABC model
    • informal style of relating to client
  15. What is the role of client in REBT?
    • student, involved and energetic
    • work hard, practice makes perfect
  16. What is the nature of the relationship in REBT?
    • Active
    • directive
    • uses humor
  17. What are the goals in REBT?
    • eliminate irrational thinking, behaviors and emotions
    • teach client REBT philosophy
    • not just help client feel better, but to get better
  18. What techniques are associated with REBT?
    • Disputing- realistic, logical, pragmatic
    • rational emotive imagery
    • bibliotherapy
    • role playing
    • rational-irrational dialogues
    • skills training
    • stop and monitor
    • acting on rational beliefs
    • coping statements
    • humor
    • homework
    • shame attacking
  19. What happens in therapy?
    • ABCDE model
    • A activating event
    • B belief about A
    • C consequence (healthy or unhealthy)
    • D dispute
    • E effect

    • elegant - using CBT interventions
    • inelegant- focuses on client's inferences
  20. Evaluation of REBT?
    strengths and weaknesses
    Strengths- evidence supported

    Weaknesses- more effective w/ client's that have one prominent symptom, too intellectual
  21. What are the applications for REBT?
    culturally?
    what is rational may differ from culture to culture
  22. What are the central constructs of REBT?
    • ABC
    • Beliefs
    • Goals
    • Secondary disturbances- we must not think crookedly, must not have disturbed feelings,
  23. What is the view of human nature in Narrative?
    • Life is seen as process of storytelling
    • Social Constructivist Approach
    • Reality is socially created
  24. What are the goals of therapy in Narrative therapy?
    deconstruct problem-saturated stories and re-author narratives that support preferred outcomes
  25. What is the role of assessment in Narrative?
    • Continuous process focused on understanding client's perspectives in their lives
    • informal
  26. What is the role of the counselor in Narrative?
    • Collaborator
    • Consultant
  27. What is the role of the client in Narrative?
    expert on their lives
  28. What is the nature of the relationship in Narrative?
    • Collaborative
    • proceeds at pace of client
    • counselor often checks w/ client to ask if it's ok to proceed
  29. What techniques are associated with Narrative?
    • Questioning- deconstructing dominant story, and externalizing the problem
    • double listening- explores nonverbalized values and meaning
    • visualization
    • outsider witness practices
    • accountability practices
    • taking in back practices
    • written artifacts- letters/notes to "thicken" preferred stories
  30. What happens in Narrative Therapy?
    • 5 stages
    • 1. relationship
    • 2. elicit problem stories
    • 3. deconstruct dominant stories
    • 4.¬† embracing preferred stories
    • 5. living enriched stories
  31. Evaluations of Narrative therapy
    Strengths and Weaknesses
    Strengths- empirical validity, quantitative and qualitative research supports effectiveness

    • Weaknesses- difficult to read/understand
    • ignores relationships btw people
    • slim to none - empirical research
  32. Applications of Narrative Theory?
    • great for diverse backgrounds
    • therapist should be of same culture as client b/c different "acceptable" traditions across cultures
    • good for females and those from groups that have been oppressed
    • good for those who are "coming out" b/c they're rewriting their story
  33. What are central constructs of Narrative Therapy?
    • Stories(alternative stories, cultural/dominant discourse, problem saturated stories)
    • Thinness & Thickness- Thin has too few details, Thick stories are rich and elaborate
    • Unique Outcomes
  34. What is the view of human nature in Solution Focused Therapy?
    • Hardcore SF therapists don't care what motivates people
    • Therapists observe what clients want to achieve and use clients strengths and resources to help them read their solutions
  35. What are the goals of SF therapy?
    • change the doing of the situation that is perceived as problematic
    • change the viewing of the situation perceived as problematic
    • evoke resources, strengths, and solutions to bring to the situation perceived as problematic
    • find out what client wants
    • counselor works w/ client to develop specific , attainable and concrete goals
    • good goals specify what replaces the wanted behaviors
  36. What is the role of assessment in SF therapy?
    • no traditional assessment
    • interview for solutions
  37. What is the role of the counselor in SF therapy?
    • tries to expand options, not limit them
    • takes responsibility for what happens in therapy
    • has special knowledge about how problems are maintained and changed
    • expert in change, but not client's problem
    • focus on what client says needs to be different without making further assumptions
    • takes lead and uses series of questions designed to elicit information relevant to exceptions and solutions
  38. What is the role of client in SF therapy?
    • expert on self and situation
    • has all necessary knowledge about problem and ability to change things
    • active collaborator in process and responsible for doing what is necessary to solve problem
  39. What is the nature of relationship in SF therapy?
    • special kind of intimacy and harmony
    • attends to what the other says
    • respects the other's worldview as valid and meaningful
    • energetic process
  40. What techniques are associated with SF therapy?
    • Questions- difference questions, relationship questions
    • normalizing the problem- feel like not "crazy"
    • compliments
    • miracle question
    • scaling questions
    • prediction tasks
    • fast-forwarding questions
    • externalizing problem- give problem a name
    • write read burn
  41. What happens in therapy in SF therapy?
    • relationship
    • invites client cooperation by initiating cooperative behaviors
    • client cooperates
    • first session is important- discuss problem and exceptions, create solvable complaint, find exceptions, set goals
    • most clients find solutions in less than 10 sessions
    • focuses on present
  42. Evaluations of SF theory
    Strengths and Weaknesses
    Strengths- short term

    Weakness-no strong empirical support, superficial,

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