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What is the view of human nature in CBT?
- behavior determined by environment
- constructivist theory, creation of meaning is from experiences
what are the goals of therapy in CBT?
- Reduce of eliminate maladaptive behavior
- teach or increase the incidence of adaptive responses
- teach client's problem solving strategies they can use across situations
- "dead man rule"- never ask a client to do something a dead person can do
What is role of assessment in CBT?
- Uses standardized self-report inventories
- measures schema related core beliefs/assumptions
- no formal diagnosis unless needed by 3rd party
What is the role of the counselor in CBT?
- acts a model for the client
What is the role of the client in CBT?
- expected to work and learn about CT
What is the nature of the relationship in CBT?
- warm, genuine, trust, respect
- collaborative empiricism
- client and counselor are "co- investigators" in study of client's difficulties
What techniques are associated with CBT?
- Activity Scheduling
- Social Skills training
- problem solving
- role playing
- exposure therapy
- self control
What happens in CBT?
- 3 stages
- 1. Behavioral Activation- establish working relationship, set goals, and socialize client
- 2. Automatic thoughts and their relationship to client's emotional behavior
- 3. schematic processing
- guided discovery- therapist has an idea about were client needs to end up and through questioning helps client get there.
What is the evaluation of CBT?
strengths and weaknesses
- Strengths- Effective, testable, useful on a wide range of client problems, massive data available
- Weaknesses- neglect of client's past, ignores client emotions
What are the applications of CBT?
Wide range of client problems
What are the central constructs of CBT?
- Behavioral learning (classical/operant conditioning)
- Observational learning
- Automatic Thoughts
- Modes- 4 primal modes
What is the view of human nature in REBT?
- Neutral- "a little bit of God and the devil in all of us"
- people can control their thoughts, feelings, behaviors
What is the role of assessment in REBT?
- Formal assessment based on DSM4, formulate a case conceptualization
- self report to assess beliefs
- informal "what brings you to therapy"
- in vivo assessment- outside office and in a setting relative to the problem
What is the role of the counselor in REBT?
- direct, active
- teacher for ABC model
- informal style of relating to client
What is the role of client in REBT?
- student, involved and energetic
- work hard, practice makes perfect
What is the nature of the relationship in REBT?
- uses humor
What are the goals in REBT?
- eliminate irrational thinking, behaviors and emotions
- teach client REBT philosophy
- not just help client feel better, but to get better
What techniques are associated with REBT?
- Disputing- realistic, logical, pragmatic
- rational emotive imagery
- role playing
- rational-irrational dialogues
- skills training
- stop and monitor
- acting on rational beliefs
- coping statements
- shame attacking
What happens in therapy?
- ABCDE model
- A activating event
- B belief about A
- C consequence (healthy or unhealthy)
- D dispute
- E effect
- elegant - using CBT interventions
- inelegant- focuses on client's inferences
Evaluation of REBT?
strengths and weaknesses
Strengths- evidence supported
Weaknesses- more effective w/ client's that have one prominent symptom, too intellectual
What are the applications for REBT?
what is rational may differ from culture to culture
What are the central constructs of REBT?
- Secondary disturbances- we must not think crookedly, must not have disturbed feelings,
What is the view of human nature in Narrative?
- Life is seen as process of storytelling
- Social Constructivist Approach
- Reality is socially created
What are the goals of therapy in Narrative therapy?
deconstruct problem-saturated stories and re-author narratives that support preferred outcomes
What is the role of assessment in Narrative?
- Continuous process focused on understanding client's perspectives in their lives
What is the role of the counselor in Narrative?
What is the role of the client in Narrative?
expert on their lives
What is the nature of the relationship in Narrative?
- proceeds at pace of client
- counselor often checks w/ client to ask if it's ok to proceed
What techniques are associated with Narrative?
- Questioning- deconstructing dominant story, and externalizing the problem
- double listening- explores nonverbalized values and meaning
- outsider witness practices
- accountability practices
- taking in back practices
- written artifacts- letters/notes to "thicken" preferred stories
What happens in Narrative Therapy?
- 5 stages
- 1. relationship
- 2. elicit problem stories
- 3. deconstruct dominant stories
- 4. embracing preferred stories
- 5. living enriched stories
Evaluations of Narrative therapy
Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths- empirical validity, quantitative and qualitative research supports effectiveness
- Weaknesses- difficult to read/understand
- ignores relationships btw people
- slim to none - empirical research
Applications of Narrative Theory?
- great for diverse backgrounds
- therapist should be of same culture as client b/c different "acceptable" traditions across cultures
- good for females and those from groups that have been oppressed
- good for those who are "coming out" b/c they're rewriting their story
What are central constructs of Narrative Therapy?
- Stories(alternative stories, cultural/dominant discourse, problem saturated stories)
- Thinness & Thickness- Thin has too few details, Thick stories are rich and elaborate
- Unique Outcomes
What is the view of human nature in Solution Focused Therapy?
- Hardcore SF therapists don't care what motivates people
- Therapists observe what clients want to achieve and use clients strengths and resources to help them read their solutions
What are the goals of SF therapy?
- change the doing of the situation that is perceived as problematic
- change the viewing of the situation perceived as problematic
- evoke resources, strengths, and solutions to bring to the situation perceived as problematic
- find out what client wants
- counselor works w/ client to develop specific , attainable and concrete goals
- good goals specify what replaces the wanted behaviors
What is the role of assessment in SF therapy?
- no traditional assessment
- interview for solutions
What is the role of the counselor in SF therapy?
- tries to expand options, not limit them
- takes responsibility for what happens in therapy
- has special knowledge about how problems are maintained and changed
- expert in change, but not client's problem
- focus on what client says needs to be different without making further assumptions
- takes lead and uses series of questions designed to elicit information relevant to exceptions and solutions
What is the role of client in SF therapy?
- expert on self and situation
- has all necessary knowledge about problem and ability to change things
- active collaborator in process and responsible for doing what is necessary to solve problem
What is the nature of relationship in SF therapy?
- special kind of intimacy and harmony
- attends to what the other says
- respects the other's worldview as valid and meaningful
- energetic process
What techniques are associated with SF therapy?
- Questions- difference questions, relationship questions
- normalizing the problem- feel like not "crazy"
- miracle question
- scaling questions
- prediction tasks
- fast-forwarding questions
- externalizing problem- give problem a name
- write read burn
What happens in therapy in SF therapy?
- invites client cooperation by initiating cooperative behaviors
- client cooperates
- first session is important- discuss problem and exceptions, create solvable complaint, find exceptions, set goals
- most clients find solutions in less than 10 sessions
- focuses on present
Evaluations of SF theory
Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths- short term
Weakness-no strong empirical support, superficial,