Edexcel C1 Topic 5
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What is crude oil?
A mixture of hydrocarbons
What is the definition of a hydrocarbon?
A compound which contains hydrogen and carbon only
How do we separate crude oil?
List the fractions in order and give their uses
- Gases - cooking and heating
- Petrol - fuel for cars
- Naphtha - lighter fluid
- Kerosene - fuel for aircrafts
- Diesel - fuel for cars
- Fuel oil - fuel for ships
- Bitumen - suroadsroads
What is the word equation for the complete combustion of butane?
Butane + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water
What toxic gas is produced during incomplete combustion and state the problem it causes
Carbon monoxide - prevents haemoglobin from carrying oxygen in the blood
How acid rain caused?
Burning fossil fuels produces sulphur dioxide which dissolves in the rain water
Name 3 problems associated with acid rain
- Kills fish in lakes and rivers
- Corrodes limestone buildings and statues
- Washes minerals from the soil killing trees
Name two greenhouse gases released when hydrocarbons burn
- Carbon dioxide
- Water vapour
What is a biofuel?
A fuel made from living things
What is the biofuel ethanol made from?
What are the advantages of using biofuels?
- They are made from a renewable source
- They are carbon neutral
What are the disadvantages of using biofuels?
- They release carbon dioxide during production
- They take up land for growing crops
- Removal of the crops destroy animals habitats
Why is hydrogen a clean fuel?
It only produces water as a product
What makes a good fuel?
- Easily ignites
- Gives off a lot of heat energy
- Produces no smoke or ash
- Easily stored e.g. Liquid
Why are alkenes unsaturated?
Because they contain a double bond
What is the formula for propane?
What is the formula for ethene?
Describe the chemical test for a double bond
Bromine water goes from orange to colourless
The breaking of long chain hydrocarbons into shorter alkanes and alkenes
What are the conditions for cracking?
Heat and a catalyst
The joining of lots of alkene monomers to make a long chain polymers by breaking their double bonds
What is the polymer of ethene called?
What is the polymer of chloroethene called?
State disadvantages of burning, burying and recycling plastics
- Burning - release toxic gases
- Burying - they are non-biodegradable so remain in landfill for years
- Recycling - different plastics means they have to be sorted which is expensive
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