Phyc 8-12

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Phyc 8-12
2013-04-30 09:57:38
Phych 12

I have my life
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  1. specific need or desire, such as hunger,thirst, or achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior
  2. feeling, such as fear, joy, or surprise, that underlies behavior.
  3. inborn, inflexible, goal-directed behaviors that are characteristic of an entire species.
  4. state of tension or arousal that motivates behavior
  5. states that motivated behavior is aimed at reducing a state of bodily tension or arousal and returning the organism to homeostasis
    drive-reduction theory
  6. state of balance and stability in which the organism functions effectively.
  7. unlearned drive, such as hunger, that are based on a physiological state
    primary drives
  8. learned drives, such as ambition, that are not based on a physiological state
    secondary drives
  9. Theory of motivation that proposes that organism seek an optimal level of arousal
    arousal theory
  10. states that there is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task; the more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates
    Yerkes-Dodson law
  11. a desire to perform as behavior that stems from the enjoyment derived for the behavior itself
    intrinsic motivation
  12. a desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
    extrinsic motivation
  13. a theory of motivation advanced by maslow holding that higher order motives involving social and personal growth only emerge after lower level motives related to survival have been satisfied
    hierarchy of needs
  14. a simple sugar used by the body for energy
  15. a hormone released by fat cells that reduces appetite
  16. a hormone produced in the stomach and small intestines that increases appetite
  17. external stimulus that prompts goal-directed behavior
  18. a serious eating disorder that is associated with an intense fear of weight gain and a distorted body image.
    anorexia nervosa
  19. an eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced vomiting
    bulimia nervosa
  20. a disorder generally  seen in young men involving an obsessive concern with muscle size
    muscle dysmorphia
  21. a theory that our bodies are genetically predisposed to maintaining a certain weight by changing our metabolic rate and activity level in response to caloric intake
    set point theory
  22. the primary male sex hormone
  23. the typical sequence of events, including excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution, characterizing sexual response in males and females
    sexual response cycle
  24. refers to the direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes
    sexual orientation
  25. unlearned motives, such as curiosity or contact, that prompts us to explore or change the world around us
    stimulus motives
  26. behavior aimed at doing harm to others; also, the motive to behave aggressively
  27. the need to excel, to overcome obstacles
    achievement motive
  28. the need to be with others
    affiliation motive
  29. states that stimuli cause physiological changes in our bodies, and emotions result from those physiological changes
    James-Lange theory
  30. states that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes
    Cannon-Bard theory
  31. states that emotional experience depends on one's perception or judgment of a situation
    cognitive theory
  32. culture-specific rules that govern how, when, and why expressions of emotion are appropriate
    display rules
  33. the study of the changes that occur in people from birth through old age
    developmental psychology
  34. a method of studying developmental changes by comparing people of different ages at about the same time
    cross-sectional study
  35. a group of people born during the same period in historical time
  36. a method of studying developmental changes by evaluating the same people at different points in their lives
    longitudinal studies
  37. a method of studying developmental changes by reconstructing a person's past through interviews and inferring the effects of past events on current behaviors.
    biographical (or retrospective) study
  38. development from conception to birth
    prenatal development
  39. a developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception
  40. a developing human between 3 months after conception and birth
  41. toxic substances such as alcohol or nicotine that cross the placenta and may result in birth defects
  42. a time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect
    critical period
  43. a disorder that occurs in children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy; this disorder is characterized facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, brain damage and cognitive impairments
    fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
  44. newborn babies
  45. characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation
  46. an automatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a function of the passage of time
  47. in Piaget's theory, the state of cognitive development between birth and 2 years of age in which the individual develops object permanence and acquires the ability to form mental representations
    sensor-motor stage
  48. the concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight
    object permanence
  49. mental images or symbols (such as words) used to think about or remember an object, a person, or an event
    mental representations
  50. in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between 2 and 7 years of age in which the individual becomes able to use mental representations and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world, though only in an egocentric fashion
    preoperational stage
  51. unable to see things from another's point of view.
  52. in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between 7 and 11 years of age in which the individual can attend to more than one thing at a time and understand someone else's point of vie, though thinking is limited to concrete matters
    concrete-operational stage
  53. the concept that the quantity of a substance is not altered by reversible changes in its appearance
    principles of conservation
  54. in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development beginning about 11 years of age in which the individual becomes capable of abstract thought
    formal-operational stage
  55. a baby's vocalizations, consisting of repetition of consonant-vowel combinations.
  56. one-word sentences commonly used by children under 2 years of age
  57. a hypothetical neural mechanism for acquiring language that is presumed to be "wired into" all humans
    language acquisition device
  58. the tendency in certain species to follow the first moving thing (usually its mother) it sees after it is born or hatched
  59. emotional bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort
  60. fear of unfamiliar people which usually emerges around 7 months, reaching its peak at 12 months and declining during the seconds year
    stranger anxiety
  61. sense of independence; a desire not to be controlled by others
  62. process by which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to their family and culture
  63. a network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another emotional and social support
    peer group
  64. the unique aspects of the environment that are experienced differently by siblings, even though they are reared in the same family
    non-shared environment
  65. a little girl's knowledge that she is a girl, and a little boy's knowledge that he is a boy
    gender identity
  66. the realization that gender does not change with age
    gender constancy
  67. knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender
    gender-role awareness
  68. general beliefs about characteristics that men and women are presumed to have
    gender stereotypes
  69. social prescribed ways of behaving that differ for boys and girls
    sex-typed behavior
  70. a rapid increase in height and weight that occurs during adolescence
    growth spurt
  71. the onset of sexual maturation, with accompanying physical development
  72. first menstrual period
  73. Erickson's term for the development of a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself.
    identity formation
  74. a period of intense self-examination and decision making; part of the process of the process of identity formation
    identity crisis
  75. groups of adolescents with similar interests and strong mutual attachment
  76. a time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift in career or lifestyle
    midlife crisis
  77. according to Levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future
    midlife transition
  78. the time in a woman's life when menstruation ceases
  79. a neurological disorder, most commonly found in late adulthood, characterized by progressive losses in memory and cognition and by changes in personality
    Alzheimer's disease
  80. an individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations
  81. in Freud's theory, all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware
  82. the theory of personality Freud developed, as well as the form of therapy he invented
  83. according to Freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct
  84. In Freud's theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desired that continually seek expression
  85. according to Freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct
    pleasure principle
  86. Freud's term for the part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id); now often used as a synonym for "self"
  87. according the Freud, the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world
    reality principle
  88. according to Freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and the ego ideal
  89. the part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be
    ego ideal
  90. according to Freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual development.
  91. first stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which the infant's erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue
    oral stage
  92. second stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which a child's erotic feelings center on the anus and on elimination
    anal stage
  93. third stage in freud's theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the genitals
    phallic stage
  94. according to Freud, a child's sexual attachment to the parent  of the opposite sex and jealousy toward the parent of the same sex; generally occurs in the phallic stage
    Oedipus complex and Electra complex
  95. in Freud's theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to have no interest in the other sex; occurs after the phallic stage
    latency peroid
  96. in Freud's theory of personality development, the final stage of normal adult sexual development, which is usually marked by mature sexuality
    genital stage
  97. in Jung's theory of personality, one of the two levels of the unconscious; it contains the individual's repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas.
    personal unconscious
  98. in Jung's theory of personality, the level of e unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species
    collective unconscious
  99. in Jung's theory of personality, thought forms common to all human beings, stored in the collective unconscious
  100. According to Jung, our public self, the mask we wear to represent ourselves to others.
  101. According to Jung, people who usually focus on social life and the external world instead of on their internal experience
  102. according the Jung, people who usually focus on their own thoughts and feelings
  103. according to Adler, the person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses
  104. In Adler's theory, the fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional and social paralysis
    inferiority complex
  105. any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning
    humanistic personality theory
  106. according to Rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become that it is inherently capable of becoming
    actualizing tendency
  107. According to Rogers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts, or the images they have of themselves.
    self-actualizing tendency
  108. According to Rogers, an individual whose self concept closely resembles in his or her inborn capacities or potentials
    fully functioning person
  109. in Rogers's theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of his or her behavior
    unconditional positive regard
  110. In Rogers's theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on another's behaving in certain ways and on fulfilling certain conditions
    conditional positive regard
  111. dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways
    personality traits
  112. a statistical technique that identifies groups of related objects, it was used by Cattell to identify clusters of trains
    factor analysis
  113. five traits or basic dimensions currently considered to be of central importance in describing personality
    Big Five
  114. Personality theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment
    cognitive-social learning theories
  115. in Bandura's view, what a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways.
  116. in Bandura's theory, standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in a variety of situations
    performance standards
  117. according to Bandura, the expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
  118. according to Rotter, an expectancy about whether reinforcement is under internal or external control
    locus of control
  119. the most widely used objective personality test, originally intended for psychiatric diagnosis
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
  120. Personality tests, such as the Rorschach inkblot test, consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material
    projective tests
  121. A projective test composed of ambiguous inkblots; the way people interpret the blots is thought to reveal aspects of their personality
    Rorschach Test
  122. A projective test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person is asked to write a complete story
    thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  123. Any environmental demand that creates a state of tension or threat and requires change or adaption
  124. a state of psychological tension or strain
  125. any effort to cope with stress
  126. a feeling that one must speed up, intensify, or change the direction of one's behavior or live up to a higher standard of performance
  127. the feeling that occurs when a person is prevented from reaching a goal
  128. simultaneous existence of incompatible demands, opportunities, needs, or goals
  129. according to Lewin, the result of simultaneous attractions to tow appealing possibilities, neither of which has any negative qualities
    approach/approach conflict
  130. According to Lewin, the result of facing a choice between two undesirable possibilities, neither of which has any positive qualities
    avoidance/avoidance conflict
  131. according to Lewin, the result of being simultaneously attracted to and repelled by the same goal
    approach/avoidance conflict
  132. Acknowledging a stressful situation directly and attempting to find a solution to the problem or to attain the difficult goal
  133. deciding on a more realistic solution or goal when an idea solution or goal is not practical
  134. avoiding a situation when other forms of coping are not practical
  135. self deceptive techniques for reducing stress, including denial, repression, projection, identification, regression, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, and sublimation
    defense mechanisms
  136. refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality
  137. excluding uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, and desires from consciousness
  138. attributing one's repressed motives, feelings, or wishes to others
  139. taking on the characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling incompetent
  140. Reverting the childlike behavior
  141. thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them
  142. expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one's repressed beliefs or feelings
    reaction formation
  143. shifting repressed motives and emotions from an original object to a substitute object
  144. redirecting repressed motives and feelings into more socially acceptable channels
  145. a subfield of psychology concerned with the relationship between psychological factors and physical health and illness
    health psychology
  146. according to Selye, the three stages the body passes through as it adapts to stress: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion
    general adaption syndrome (GAS)
  147. a new field that studies the interaction between stress on the one hand and immune, endocrine, and nervous system activity on the other
  148. psychological disorder characterized by episodes of anxiety, sleeplessness, and nightmares resulting from some disturbing past event
    posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  149. positive personal growth that may follow an extremely stressful event
    posttraumatic growth (PTG)
  150. view that psychological disorders have a biochemical or physiological basis
    biological model
  151. view that psychological disorders result from unconscious internal conflicts
    psychoanalytic model
  152. view that psychological disorders result from learning maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving
    cognitive-behavioral model
  153. view that people biologically predisposed to a mental disorder (those with certain diathesis) will tend to exhibit that disorder when particularly affected by stress
    diathesis-stress model
  154. biological predisposition
  155. view that biological, psychological, and social risk factors combine to produces psychological disorders. also known as the biopsychosocial model of psychological disorders
    systems approach
  156. legal term applied to defendants who do not know right from wrong or are unable to control their behavior
  157. disturbances in mood or prolonged emotional state
    mood disorders
  158. a mood disorder characterized by overwhelming feelings of sadness, lack of interest in activities, and perhaps excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness
  159. a depressive disorder characterized by an episode of intense sadness, depressed mood, or marked loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities
    major depressive disorder
  160. a depressive disorder where the symptoms are generally less severe than for major depressive disorder, but are present most days and persist for at least 2 years
  161. a mood disorder characterized by euphoric states, extreme physical activity, excessive talkativeness, distractedness, and sometimes grandiosity
  162. a mood disorder in which periods of mania and depression alternate, sometimes with periods of normal mood intervening
    bipolar disorder
  163. an illogical and maladaptive response to early negative life events that leads to feelings of incompetence and unworthiness that are reactivated whenever a new situation arises that resembles the original events
    cognitive distortions
  164. disorders in which anxiety is a characteristic feature or the avoidance of anxiety seems to motivate abnormal behavior
    anxiety disorders
  165. anxiety disorder characterized by an intense, paralyzing fear of something
    specific phobia
  166. anxiety disorders characterized by excessive, inappropriate fears connected with social situations or performances in front of other people
    social phobias
  167. an anxiety disorder that involves multiple, intense fears of crowds, public places, and other situations that require separation from a source of security such as the home
  168. an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks in which the person suddenly experiences intense fear or terror without any reasonable cause
    panic disorder
  169. an anxiety disorder characterized by prolonged vague but intense fears that are not attached to any particular object or circumstance
    generalized anxiety disorder
  170. an anxiety disorder in which a person feels driven to think disturbing thoughts or to perform senseless rituals
    obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  171. a disorder in which there is real physical illness that is largely caused by psychological factors such as stress and anxiety
    psychosomatic disorder
  172. disorders in which there is an apparent physical illness for which there is no organic basis
    somatoform disorders
  173. a somatoform disorder characterized by recurrent vague somatic complaints without a physical cause
    somatization disorder
  174. somatoform disorders in which a dramatic specific disability has no physical cause but instead seems related to psychological problems
    conversion disorders
  175. a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets insignificant symptoms as signs of serious illness in the absence of any organic evidence of such illness
  176. a somatoform disorder in which a person becomes so preoccupied with his or her imagined ugliness that normal like is impossible
    body dysmorphic disorder
  177. disorders in which some aspect of the personality seems separated from the rest
    dissociative disorders
  178. a disorder characterized by loss of memory for past events without organic cause
    dissociative amnesia
  179. a disorder that involves flight from home and the assumption of a new identity with amnesia for past identity and events
    dissociative fugue
  180. (aka multiple personality disorder.) Disorder characterized by the separation of the personality into two or more distinct personalities
    dissociative identity disorder
  181. a dissociate disorder whose essential feature is that the person suddenly feels changed or different in a strange ways
    depersonalization disorder
  182. loss or impairment of the ordinary physical responses of sexual function
    sexual dysfunction
  183. the ability of a man to achieve or maintain an erection
    erectile disorder (or erectile dysfunction) (ED)
  184. the inability of a woman to become sexually aroused or to reach orgasm
    female sexual arousal disorder
  185. disorders in which the person lacks sexual interest or has an active distaste for sex
    sexual desire disorder
  186. inability to reach orgasm in a person able to experience sexual desire and maintain arousal
    orgasmic disorders
  187. inability of man to inhibit orgasm as long as desired
    premature ejaculation
  188. involuntary muscle spasms in the outer part of the vagina that make intercourse impossible
  189. sexual disorders in which unconventional objects or situations cause sexual arousal
  190. a paraphilia in which a nonhuman object is the preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement
  191. desire to watch others having sexual relations or to spy on nude people
  192. compulsion to expose one's genitals in public to achieve sexual arousal
  193. compulsion to achieve sexual arousal by touching or rubbing against a noncondensing person in public situations
  194. wearing the clothes of the opposite sex to achieve sexual gratifications
    transvestic fetishism
  195. obtaining sexual gratification from humiliating or physically harming a sex partner
    sexual sadism
  196. inability to enjoy sex without accompanying emotional or physical pain
    sexual masochism
  197. desire to have sexual relations with children as the preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement
  198. disorders that involve the desire to become, or the insistence that one really is, a member of the other biological sex.
    gender-identity disorder
  199. rejection of one's biological gender in childhood, along with the clothing and behavior that society considers appropriate to that gender
    gender-identity disorder in children
  200. disorders in which inflexible and maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving learned early in life cause distress to the person or conflicts with others
    personality disorders
  201. personality disorder in which a person is withdrawn and lacks feelings for others
    schizoid personality disorders
  202. personality disorder in which the person is inappropriately suspicious and mistrustful of others
    paranoid personality disorder
  203. personality disorder in which the person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and cannot tolerate being alone
    dependent personality disorder
  204. personality disorder in which the person's fears of rejection by others lead to social isolation
    avoidant personality disorder
  205. personality disorder in which the person has an exaggerated sense of self-importance and needs constant admiration
    narcissistic personality disorder
  206. personality disorder characterized by marking instability in self-image, mood, and interpersonal relationships
    borderline personality disorder
  207. personality disorder that involves a pattern of violent, criminal, or unethical and exploitative behavior and an inability to feel affections for others
    antisocial personality disorder
  208. severe disorders in which there are disturbances of thoughts, communications, and emotions, including delusions and hallucinations
    schizophrenic disorders
  209. behavior characterized by a loss of touch with reality
  210. sensory experiences in the absence of external stimulation
  211. false beliefs about reality that have no basis in fact
  212. Schizophrenic disorder in which bizarre and childlike behaviors are common
    disorganized schizophenia
  213. Schizophrenic disorder in which disturbed motor behavior is prominent
    catatonic schizophrenia
  214. Schizophrenic disorder marked by extreme suspiciousness and complex, bizarre delusions
    paranoid schizophrenia
  215. Schizophrenic disorder in which there are clear schizophrenic symptoms what do not meet the criteria fro another subtype of the disorder
    undifferentiated schizophrenia
  216. a childhood disorder characterized by inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity
    attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  217. drugs that increase ability to focus attention in people with ADHD
  218. a childhood disorder characterized by lack of social instincts and strange motor behavior
    autistic disorder
  219. a range of disorders involving varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interactions, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior
    autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)