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- What happened to Napoleon?
- In March 1815 he escaped and returned to Paris with a new army, but in June 1815 he was defeated at Waterloo and exiled to St.Helena .
What did Napoleon cause with his arrest?
Borders had to be redrawn and diplomats had to meet in Vienna to restore order in October 1814
How did Napoleon's defeat influence the Europeans?
Europeans became more determined to govern their own land and distance themselves from rulers and the church
What caused revolutionary movements in Italy in 1840-1860?
The Congress of Vienna reestablished the church's rule over the papal States and divided the rest of Italy-not pleasing to Italian patriots.
1861 United Kingdom of Italy wanted ______________as their capital, despite the protest by Pope pius ix
When was the 1st Vatican Council called? Why was it interrupted?
December 1869-October 1870. With the taking of the remained of the papal States and Rome itself
Otto von Bismarck establishes the German Empire. What did this caused and what was the Vatican councils teaching?
Began kulturekampf or the conflict of cultures to persecut many catholics. Papal Infliblity would cause Catholics to disregard the German government
What did industrial growth bring?
Corrupt businesses owners that took advantage of their workers and gave them poor living and working conditions.
Who did the workers look to for help in gaining justice? What caused them to give up their religion for justice?
Communist and socialist labor organizations that promoted a classless society and equal distribution of economic goods. believe what Karl Marx taught, that religion gave people an illusion of an unreal world.
How does Pope Leo x111 contribute to the church?
Wrote 85 encyclicals to explain the church social teachings. One of them being rerum Novarum , "of new things", that applied church traditional doctrines to the modern world concerns- workers rights to just wages, to form trade unions. Also keep x111 ask gov to enact laws to protect workers rights
What contributions does Pope pius x make to the church.
Declared that children should recieve First Holy Communion as soon as they understand that Christ was truly present in the Eucharist, encourage Catholics to receive Holy Communion frequently even daily, encouraged the revival of the Gregorian chant and the writing of appropriate new music, instructed bishops to provide better instructions for priest and for homelies 2 be simple and clear.