Endocrine System

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  1. hormones
    chemical signals that are secreted into the circulatory system and communicate regulatory messages within the body
  2. hormones reach all parts of the body but only what cells are equipped to respond?
    target cells
  3. how many hormones are there
    more than 70
  4. the endocrine system secretes what?
    • hormones that coordinate slower but longer- acting responses including
    • reproduction 
    • development
    • energy
    • metabolism
    • growth
    • behavior
  5. the nervous system conveys what?
    high-speed electrical signals along specialized cells called neurons which regulate other cells
  6. exogenous chemicals or endocrine disruptors
    • chemicals that have been identified to interfere with hormone signaling
    • insecticides, herbicides, dyes, plastics, detergents
    • DDT, PCB's and red dye #3
  7. how do hormones work?
    • chemical signals bind to receptor proteins on target cells (only target cells respond to the signal)
    • these include 
    • hormones
    • local regulators
    • neurotransmitters
    • neurohormones
    • pheromones
  8. exocrine glands have ducts and secrete what?
    • substances onto body surfaces or into body cavities
    • tear ducts
    • sweat glands
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • mammary glands
    • stomach
  9. local regulators
    • chemical signals that travel over short distances by diffusion
    • help regulate blood pressure, nervous system function, and reproduction
    • divided into two types: paracrine and autocrine
  10. paracrine regulators
    signals act on cells near the secreting cell
  11. autocrine regulators
    signals act on the secreting cell itself
  12. neurons (nerve cells) contact target cells at what?
  13. at synapses neurons
    neurons often secrete chemical signals called neurotransmitters
  14. neurotransmitters
    • diffuse a short distance to bind to receptors on the target cell
    • play a role in
    • sensation
    • memory
    • cognition 
    • movement
  15. pheromones
    • chemical signals that are released from the body and used to communicate with other individuals in the species
    • mark trails to food sources, warn of predators, and attract potential mates
    • (7 types of pheromones)
  16. alarm phermones
    cause conspecifics to flee
  17. releaser pheromones
    initiate behavior
  18. signal pheromones
    cause short term changes
  19. primer pheromones
    cause developmental changes
  20. sex pheromones
    attract mates
  21. three major classes of molecules function as hormones in vertebrates they are
    • polypeptides (proteins and peptides)
    • Amines derived from amino acids
    • steroid hormones
  22. anobolic steroids can cause what 7 effects?
    • aggression
    • violence
    • mania
    • psychosis
    • liver damage
    • gynecomastia (male develop breasts)
    • testicular atrophy
  23. lipid soluble hormones (steroid hormones) and water soluble hormones (polypeptides and amines) which pass through a cell membrane easily?
    • lipid soluble
    • water soluble do not
  24. the solubility of a hormone correlates with?
    the location of receptors inside or on the surface of target cells
  25. water- soluble hormones are secreted by?
    exocytosis, travel freely in the bloodstream, and bind to cell-surface receptors
  26. lipid-soluble hormones diffuse across?
    cell membranes, travel in bloodstream bound to transport proteins, and diffuse through the membrane of target cells
  27. signal transduction
    binding of a hormone to its receptor intitates a signal transduction pathway leading to responses in the cytoplasm, enzyme activation, or a change in gene expression
  28. the response to a lipid-soluble hormone is usually a change in what?
    gene expression
  29. for a lipid pathway, steroids, thyroid hormones, and hormonal form of vitamin D enter target cells and bind to protein receptors in what?
    • the cytoplasm or nucleus
    • protein-receptor complexes then act as transcription factors in the nucleus, regulating transcription of specific genes
  30. vitamin D is formed where?
    • in the skin of vertebrates
    • feathers and fur block the skin
    • oily secretions on fur generate the vitamin and licking absorbs it
  31. vitamin D is then transported to?
    • to the liver
    • converted to physiological active form
  32. vitamin D regulates
    • calcium and phosphate in the blood
    • cell proliferation and aptosis
    • neuromuscular function
  33. hormone diseases are caused by
    • either an overbalance or a limitation of a hormone
    • gland hyposecretion
    • gland hypersecretion
    • tumor
    • usually multiple symptoms
  34. addisons disease
    • adrenal glands do not produce sufficient glucorticoids 
    • symptoms
    • fatigue
    • light headedness
    • muscle weakness
    • fever
    • vomiting
    • hyperpigmentation
  35. glucocorticoids
    • regulate immune responses
    • cardiac function
    • metabolism
    • and homeostatic responses
  36. in addison's disease, the decrease in glucocorticoids causes a feedback where?
    • hypothalamus to produce CRH
    • CRH recieved by the pituitary which then produces ACTH to signal the adrenal glands to produce more glucocorticoids
  37. hyperpigmentation
    • MSH and ACTH share the same precursor molecule POMC
    • with the upregulation of ACTH there is also an increase in MSH
    • darkening of creases of the hands, inside of the cheeks and old scars are common
  38. treatment for addison's disease and causes
    • oral steroids
    • genetic
    • autoimmune
    • medicines for other illnesses interfere with steroid synthesis
    • infections damaging the adrenal glands
Card Set:
Endocrine System
2013-04-30 04:28:19
Life 103

Test 4
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