Card Set Information
What year did Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission take place?
What did Citizens United do in response to the law stating that Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act?
Made a 90 minute movie about Hillary Clinton
What was the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act?
Made it illegal for companies to purchase air time to run political ads 30 days before the primary election, 60 days before the general election.
What did the Supreme Court rule in Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission?
Rules that it was unconstitutional to ban businesses and corporations from airing political ads.
Who was the Fairness Doctrine put in place by?
What did the FCC require broadcast license holders to do?
1. Cover important issues to public
2. Provide multiple perspectives on issues of public importance.
What year did Red Lion v. FCC take place?
What does Red Lion v. FCC state?
That broadcasting is different. It does not enjoy the same level of first amendment protection as print media.
What year did Miami Herald v. Tornillo take place?
Why was Tornillo suing the Miami Herald?
They had written an editorial critical of him, he said he must be allowed a rebuttal but the paper refused.
What did the Supreme Court rule in Miami Herald v. Tornillo?
It was unconstitutional to force a newspaper to run anything.
What did the Cable Television Consumer Protection & Competition Act state?
That cable providers must also provide ABC, NBC and CBS.
What year did the first Turner v. FCC trial take place?
What was decided in Turner I?
That cable has some First Amendment Protection. Essentially, Turner was granted the right to have a trial.
What year did Turner v. FCC II take place?
What was ruled in Turner II?
That "Must Carry" rules are constitutional
What are Safe harbor hours in which "indecent" material can be broadcast?
10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
What first amendment protection does obscenity have?
None, but the Supreme Court leaves it up to individual communities to come up with own standards.
Does pornography have constitutional protection?
What year did FCC v. Pacifica take place?
Why did Pacifica sue FCC?
A father had heard George Carlin's "Dirty Words" and filed a complaint. The FCC fined Pacifica (the station)
What does the Supreme Court decide in FCC v. Pacifica?
The government does have the legal authority to control the content on broadcasting, particularly indecent language.
In 2002, what did the FCC start to plan to do with "fleeting expletives"?
Hold the broadcasters accountable, even if it was the guest's mistake.
What year did FCC v. Fox take place?
Why was Fox suing the FCC?
Bono had used the F-word live during an awards show, and NYPD Blue actress was naked on TV. FCC fined them based on new indecency rules.
What did the supreme court decide in FCC v. Fox?
The broadcasters won based on due process. The rule was put into effect after the shows were aired.
What year did FCC v. CBS take place?
Why did CBS sue the FCC?
Super Bowl – Janet Jackson. Fined.
What happened in FCC v. CBS?
CBS had its fines revoked, but the Supreme Court wrote that future wardrobe malfunctions would not be protected.
What did the Telecommunications Act of 1996 do?
Made it illegal to post indecent language on the internet.
What year did Reno v. ACLU take place?
What did the Supreme Court rule in Reno v. ACLU?
That the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was unconstitutional.
What year did ACLU v. Mukasey take place?
What did the Child Online Protection Act state?
That adults would have to provide a credit card number in order to access adult material online.
What did the Appeals Court rule in ACLU v. Mukasey?
That the Child Online Protection Act violated the constitution. Put a permanent injunction into effect.
What is the single publication rule on the Internet?
If you sue a publication for libel, you can only sue for the first time it is published.
Where does the jurisdiction fall on the Internet?
You sue the state you live in generally.
Are Internet Providers seen as publishers?
No. They are not responsible for information for which they do not have editorial control.
What year did Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Assoc take place?
What did Entertainment Merchants Assoc. sue Brown (gov. of Cali)?
A law was passed that banned the purchase of violent video games by minors.
What did the Supreme Court rule in Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Assoc.?
Ruled in favor of video game companies. Said the California law went too far.