Late Adulthood

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Late Adulthood
2013-04-30 04:08:59
Human Development

Developmental Educational Psych presentation
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  1. Hair
  2. Actually it looses pigmentation that made it
    look different colors before.
  3. Skin
    “Age spots” begin to appear.

    •  Due to
    • accumulation of decades of exposure to the sun (especially on face, arms etc).

    More common on light skin people
  4. Teeth
    Become yellower

    • Loss of enamel.

    • Accumulation of coffee, tobacco etc.

    • Better dental hygiene prevents tooth loss.
    • Even today 20% of Americans have lost all their
    • teeth by age 65.
  5. Leads
    to Cataracts.
    • ·        
    • Thickening of the lenses, vision becomes
    • cloudy and distorted.

    • ·        
    • Starts in Middle adulthood.

    • ·        
    • 25% of people in their 70’s and 50% of people in
    • their 80’s.

    • ·        
    • Biological changes, but smoking and sun exposure
    • increase the risk.

    • ·        
    • May lead to blindness
  6. Macular
    • ·        
    • Lots of clarity in the center of the visual
    • field.

    • ·        
    • Due to aging, but smoking increases it and
    • healthy diets lowers it (green leafy veggies and fish)

    • ·        
    • 4% of 65-74yr olds and 15% of 75 and over.

    • ·        
    • May lead to blindness.
  7. Glaucoma
    • ·        
    • Loss of peripheral vision. The vision outside
    • the center. Build up of fluid.

    • ·        
    • 10% of 90 yr olds.

    • ·        
    • May be treated with medicated eye drops.

    • ·        
    • May lead to blindness.
  8. All 3 of these conditions may lead to blindness
    Smoking increases the risk
  9. Hearing
    • Most hearing problems occur due to aging, but
    • smoking increases the risk.

    • Affects daily life in some aspects – Unable to
    • communicate.
    • Hearing loss associated with depression and
    • loneliness.

    Hearing loss associated with Cognitive decline.
  10. Taste
    and Smell
    Due to aging, but smoking increases the risks.

    • ¼ of adults 65 of older report some impairment,
    • but at age 80, 60% of adults.

    • Food becomes less appetizing, therefore, less
    • food consumption.

    May lead to malnutrition.
  11. Sleeping
    Problems may be caused by

      Depression, Anxiety, Arthrtis, osteoporosis
    (physical) Restless leg. (Invluntary leg movements)
    • Some
    • reccomandations to avoid problems:
    • Less Caffeine or Alcohol, Regular bedtime, Moderate Exersise, Avoid naps.

      Medications are available.
  12. Arthritis

    • Medications to ease the pain.

    • Surgery to insert artificial joints.

    • Exercise (Studies have been made. 3 groups/ 8
    • weeks: 1 did aquatic exercise, 2 did land exercise, 3 didn’t do any.
    • Participants were able to do more activities without pain.)
  13. Osteoporosis
  14. Risk for broken bones (the bad news, 15% of
    women who suffered a broken bone die within 1 year.)
  15. Exercise
    Reduces the risk for:

    • Stroke


    • The symptoms for arthritis and diabetes

    • Heart attack
  16. Brain shrinks up 
    to 10% by the time they reach 80 yrs old
    This affects

    •  the hippocampus
    • (controls the transfer of information to long term memory)

    • The cerebellum (balance and coordination)

    • The frontal lobes (Planning and judgment)
  17. Memory
    • Selective
    • attention-The ability to tune out irrelevant information

    • Divided
    • attention-the ability to keep track of more than one thing at a time.

    • Sustained
    • attention-The ability to stay focus on one task for a long period of time

    • Working
    • memory-information that is in focus of your attention during this time

    • Long
    • term memory-Adults are just unable to retrieve information.

    • Episodic
    • memory-Scenes, When trying to remember, one goes back in time to picture a
    • certain “scene”

    • Autobiographical
    • memory-People remember things that make them feel good about themselves.
    • (marriage, having children, etc.)

    • Source
    • memory-Where did the information come from?
  18. Alzheimer’s
    • Severe loss of memory for recent events and
    • familiar names and tasks (grandchild’s name, route to the bank, pharmacy etc).

    • Ultimately even awareness of the people, places,
    • events and facts most familiar and most valued is lost.

    • Personality changes – Now more aggressive
    • because of stress less interest in other of favorite activities.

    • May have paranoid behavior and possible
    • hallucinations.
  19. Life expectancy for people with Alzheimer’
    •  Men :
    • about 4 yrs more

    • Women: bout 8 yrs more
  20. Causes of Alzheimers
    • Diet
    • People in Yoruba had lower rates of the disease eventhough they possed the gene. The difference was in their diets
  21. Constant care
    • ·        
    • People with the disease will eventually stop
    • feeding, groom themselves. They may lose control of their bodily fluids

    • ·        
    • Unfortunately, caregiver will become physically
    • and psychologically exhausted. In some cases they may suffer depression.
  22. Preventing/delaying cognitive decline
    • Seattle
    • Longitudinal Study-Participants 65 years and older receive 5, 1 hr traning sessions in spatial
    • orientation and reasoning skills.

    • 2/3
    • or the participants improved their performance significantly.

    • 40%
    • matches the level of performance they had shown on task 14 years earlier.

    • When
    • assesed 7 years later, they
    • out performed age mates who had not receive the intervention.

    • Optimization-
    • perfromance in the remaining
    • activities becomes more likely because all the person’s energy and attention
    • can be focused on them.

    • Compensation-find
    • ways to compensate for physical and mental declines by developing new
    • strategies or technology.
  23. Selective
    Optimization with Compensation
    • Selecting valued activities that can still be
    • done well enough and that can still be enjoyed

    • Optimization- Performance in the remaining
    • activities becomes more likely because all the person’s energy and attention
    • can be focused on them.

    • Compensation- Find ways of compensate for
    • physical and mental declines by developing new strategies and/or technology
  24. ¨Socioemotional Selectivity Theory.
    • § 
    • As people get older, they have a shifting time
    • perspective of their future, limited in length and less flexible when compared
    • to younger adults. According to SST, this shifting time-perspective contributes
    • to the positivity effect where older adults regard positive events more
    • significantly than negative events. A change in motivation or goal-orientation
    • is suggested to accompany the shift in time-perspective. That is, younger
    • adults focus on goals related to knowledge acquisition, like meeting an author,
    • and older adults focus on goals related to emotion regulation[4] .
    • Fung and Carstensen (2004) successfully manipulated individual's
    • time-perspective experimentally and observed corresponding changes in
    • goal-orientatio
  25. Family relations
    • In traditional
    • cultures

    • Parents often live
    • with children, usually older son.

    • Children offer
    • emotional support as well as financial support

    In Western cultures

    • Older adults live
    • apart from children. When they have to live with children they will live with
    • daughters.

    • Children offer
    • emotional support but parents continue to provide financial support.
  26. Living Arangements
    Assisted living

    • Independent
    • apartments but with care. Meal services, housekeeping, workers offer driving
    • them to doctor appointments, errands, etc.

    • More common in US and
    • Canada more than anywhere else in the world.

    Nursing homes

    • Facilities for people
    • with severe cognitive or medical conditions.

    • Same as assisted
    • living but also provide extensive medical care.

    • More common in US and
    • Canada more than anywhere else in the world.

    • One of the problems
    • with nursing homes is that they offer limited choice of what things to do.

    Other Programs

    • Other cases where
    • someone refuses to live in a home. Relatives may hire a person to help older
    • adults with everyday things.
  27. Love relations

    • (They managed to
    • surpass all the problems, together)

    • They have less
    • stressful compared to young marriages because they don’t have to worry about
    • children, work responsibilities, money problems etc.

    • Only 1% of marriages
    • of people 65 and older will divorce.

    • Older couples have
    • more quality time in late adulthood because of retirement.

    • Older couples don’t
    • fight as much because they tend to be more peaceful.


    • whether they have a
    • partner, still married, have a romantic relationship)

    • Women tend to lose
    • vaginal lubrication (making it more painful than enjoyable)

    • Men lose testosterone
    • (making erections last longer)

    • However, medications
    • are available
  28. Love relations

    • They had spent a life
    • time together.

    • Children have moved
    • out, therefore they are alone in the house.

    • In many cases, the
    • remaining person will die shortly after their spouse passed.

     Men are more likely to become depressed.


    • Avoid children’s
    • negative reaction

    • Simply want to stay
    • independent
  29. ¨Part time employment
    • It will keep the busy, physically, cognitively
    • and socially active.

    On the down side, employers may discriminate.
  30. ¨Leisure activities
    • People may want to try different things but more
    • likely, they will usually spend their time doing things they use to enjoy.

    • Take a few classes (Many colleges now offer
    • senior programs)

    • Travel (if they can afford it)

    • Exploritas-  a program that mixes travel with
    • cognitive stimulation. (travel to France and study art, Italy study
    • arquitecture)

    • Other activities may include reading, cooking,
    • tv/movies gardening.
  31. Community Involvement
    Highly involved in community.

    • Book clubs, gardening clubs, religion, politics
    • etc 

    • “Across countries, people 65 yr old and older
    • are the group that votes the most”
  32. Volunteer
    Meals for poor, clothe drives etc

    In the US, 40% of volunteers are in their 60’s (annually)

    • Then it declines to 10% for 75yr olds.
  33. Religion
    Attend weekly religious centers

    Not only in practice but also in their beliefs.

    Women tend to be more religious than men

    • The more religious they are the less likely they
    • are to become depress (they will be less lonely and less afraid of dying)

    • Health benefits of religion

    • ·        
    • Better functioning of the immune system and
    • lower blood pressure (Atcheley, 2009)

    • ·        
    • Lowers the risk for physical disabilities and
    • extends life expectancy (Hill, 2008; Roff et al.,2006)