Food labels are regulated by what 2 organizations? Which is mandatory and which is optional?
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - manditory
Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) - optional
Explain the 95% rule in pet food labeling
Applies to products containing meat, poultry or fish.
If they use beef, tuna etc in the name of the food, the food must have 95% of the product must be the named ingredient not counting water.
Counting the added water, the named ingredient must still comprise 70% of the product.
If the food has two listed ingredients, the two must comprise 95% of the total weight and the 1st ingredient must be the one with high predominance in the product.
Explain the 25% rule AKA
Dinner, platter, entree, nuggets, receipe and formula
Name ingredient must comprise 25% (not counting water) but less than 95%
Counting water the named ingredients must comprise 10% of the product.
2 or more ingredients (Chicken n' fish dinner) must have 25% chicken and fish combined and at least 3% fish.
Explain the 3% rule or "with" rule
Allows the use of the term with as part of the product name if the product contains at least 3% of the named ingredient is contained.
Explain the "flavor" rule
Specific % is not required, but flavor must be detected. Tested utilizing animals trained to prefer specific flavors. The word flavor must be the same size type as the other words on the label.
What are "digests" with respect to flavor?
Materials treated with heat, enzymes and/or acids to form concentrated natural flavors
Net Quantity Statement refers to what?
How much product is in the container.
What must be included on the label
Manufacturer's name and phone number at the least
clean flesh of slaughtered mammals and is limited to striated muscle with or without the accompanying or overlaying fat and portions of skin, sinew, nerve and blood vessels which normally accompany the skin.
Define meat meal
Product from mammal tissue, exclusive of any blood, hair horn, hide trimmings, manure, stomach and rumen contents.
Which is better and why?
Corn listed as the 1st ingredient and meat meal list second
meat listed as the 1st ingredient
Corn listed as the 1st ingrediant because meat is very high in moisture (appr 75% water). On the other hand, water and fat are removed from meat meal, so it is only 10% moisture (what's left is mostly protein and minerals).
comparing both products on a dry matter basis ("remove" the water), one could see that the first product had more animal-source protein from meat meal than the first product had from meat, even though the ingredient list suggests otherwise.
Define Guaranteed Analysis
the minimum percentages of crude protein and crude fat, and the maximum percentages of crude fiber and moisture.
The "crude" refers to the specific method of testing the product, not to the quality of the nutrient itself.
What are the guarantees for
Cat foods: taurine and magnesium.
Dog foods: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid.
A "complete and balanced" pet food must be substantiated for nutritional adequacy by one of two means.
1. for the pet food to contain ingredients formulated to provide levels of nutrients that meet an established profile. Presently, the AAFCO Dog or Cat Food Nutrient Profiles are used.
2. the product is tested using the appropriate AAFCO Feeding Trial Protocol(s). This means that the product, or "lead" member of a "family" of products, has been fed to dogs or cats under strict guidelines and found to provide proper nutrition. These products should bear the nutritional adequacy statement "Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that (name of product) provides complete and balanced nutrition."
What requirement does a product labeled for senior diet mean?
a "senior" diet must meet the requirements for adult maintenance, but no more.
A product that does not meet the maintenance or growth methods for substantiation of nutritional adequacy must state that "this product is intended for intermittent or supplemental feeding only," What are the exceptions?
unless the product is conspicuously identified as a “snack,” “treat.” or “supplement.”
Define the term natural
lacks artificial flavors, colors, or preservatives in the product.
Are premium, ultra premium or gourmet better?
Products labeled as premium or gourmet are not required to contain any different or higher quality ingredients, nor are they held up to any higher nutritional standards than are any other complete and balanced products.
Abomasum - True Stomach where digestion starts Problem with twisted abomasum
Function of the salivary gland
List the 3 pairs
Parotid, Mandibular, Submandibular
Function of the pancreas
To release hormones and enzymes
List hormones secreted by the Islet of Langerhans and what they do
Alpha cells - glucagon which elevates blood sugar
Beta cells - secrete insulin reduces blood sugar
Delta cells - secrete somatostatin inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
List 4 Function of the liver
Temporary storage of fatty acids
Secretion of bile
Converts sugars into glycogen
How do you assess hydration?
skin turgidity, eyes sunken, recessed (4, 7, 10%)
Moisture of mucous membranes
How do you replace fluid in a dehydrated animal?
4 Functions of Water
A. Regulate body temperature
B. Maintain electrolyte concentrations (sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium
C. Medium for chemical reactions – Water is the #1 solvent in the world
D. Lubricate body tissues especially joints
Why does a dog on IV fluid they may still exhibit a need for water.
Thirst is stimulated by Hypothalamas when there is a lack of water in stomach (gastric factor) which an IV doesn't satisfy.
50# dog with 5% dehydration
800# horse with 5% dehydration
utilization of all nutrients
Heat to maintain body temperature.
Define Gross Energy
The heat given off when food is completely burned (using a Bomb Calorimeter) to its oxidation products: carbon dioxide, water and other gases.
Define Digestible Energy
Determined by an animal feeding trial. Food consumption and fecal excretion are measured and a gross energy determination of both food and feces is made. The D.E. value is calculated by subtracting fecal energy output from food energy input
Define Metabolized Energy
Determined by a feeding trial. This differs from D.E. in that urine output is also subtracted from the food energy input.
Define Net Energy
determined by measuring body heat losses and subtracting it from the Metabolized Energy value
What additional essential protein is needed by cats?
Define Crude Protein
the NITROGEN (found in protein and amino acids) in a food source.
What is the formula for crude protein?
% Nitrogen X 6.25
Define Biological Value
Estimate of PROTEIN QUALITY. The BV reflects the number and amount of essential amino acids the food contains. BV is written as a %. It equals the percentage of a nutrient that is absorbed and utilized by the body
Protein is converted to_______. Is is utilized and _________ is released as a by-product. That by product is converted into ______ in the _____ and then is excreted by the ____
Urea (waste) is the ______ end product of protein metabolism
Urea liver kidneys
Protein restriction results in
inadequate tissue repair
How do we test for Protein Metabolism?
BUN – Blood Urea Nitrogen Test for kidney evaluation.
Normal Values – BUN –
15-20 mg/dl for most species
Classification of Carbohydrates
1. Simple Sugars – one molecule – easily broken down. Sugars that are easily broken down to be absorbed by the body. Monosaccharides Example: Glucose & Fructose.
2. Complex Sugars – Formed by combining 2 molecules of monosaccharides Dissacarrides. Example Sucrose, Maltose & Lactose.
3. Trisaccharides – Consists of 1 molecule each of Glucose, galactose and fructose. Example: Raffinose
4. Polysaccharides – Made up of numerous molecules of simple sugars. Example: Dextrin, starch, cellulose, glycogen
Some digestion of carbohydrates occurs in the mouth by the enzyme _____. The primary site of digestion occurs in the ____.
Starch, glycogen and disaccharides are broken down to _________. Must be
broken down to before it can be absorbed.
Metabolism of most carbohydrates in pet rations are absorbed as _____. Must be broken down to _____.