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Food labels are regulated by what 2 organizations? Which is mandatory and which is optional?
- Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - manditory
- Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) - optional
Explain the 95% rule in pet food labeling
- Applies to products containing meat, poultry or fish.
- If they use beef, tuna etc in the name of the food, the food must have 95% of the product must be the named ingredient not counting water.
- Counting the added water, the named ingredient must still comprise 70% of the product.
- If the food has two listed ingredients, the two must comprise 95% of the total weight and the 1st ingredient must be the one with high predominance in the product.
Explain the 25% rule AKA
- Dinner, platter, entree, nuggets, receipe and formula
- Name ingredient must comprise 25% (not counting water) but less than 95%
- Counting water the named ingredients must comprise 10% of the product.
- 2 or more ingredients (Chicken n' fish dinner) must have 25% chicken and fish combined and at least 3% fish.
Explain the 3% rule or "with" rule
Allows the use of the term with as part of the product name if the product contains at least 3% of the named ingredient is contained.
Explain the "flavor" rule
Specific % is not required, but flavor must be detected. Tested utilizing animals trained to prefer specific flavors. The word flavor must be the same size type as the other words on the label.
What are "digests" with respect to flavor?
Materials treated with heat, enzymes and/or acids to form concentrated natural flavors
Net Quantity Statement refers to what?
How much product is in the container.
What must be included on the label
Manufacturer's name and phone number at the least
clean flesh of slaughtered mammals and is limited to striated muscle with or without the accompanying or overlaying fat and portions of skin, sinew, nerve and blood vessels which normally accompany the skin.
Define meat meal
Product from mammal tissue, exclusive of any blood, hair horn, hide trimmings, manure, stomach and rumen contents.
Which is better and why?
Corn listed as the 1st ingredient and meat meal list second
meat listed as the 1st ingredient
- Corn listed as the 1st ingrediant because meat is very high in moisture (appr 75% water). On the other hand, water and fat are removed from meat meal, so it is only 10% moisture (what's left is mostly protein and minerals).
- comparing both products on a dry matter basis ("remove" the water), one could see that the first product had more animal-source protein from meat meal than the first product had from meat, even though the ingredient list suggests otherwise.
Define Guaranteed Analysis
- the minimum percentages of crude protein and crude fat, and the maximum percentages of crude fiber and moisture.
- The "crude" refers to the specific method of testing the product, not to the quality of the nutrient itself.
What are the guarantees for
- Cat foods: taurine and magnesium.
- Dog foods: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid.
A "complete and balanced" pet food must be substantiated for nutritional adequacy by one of two means.
- 1. for the pet food to contain ingredients formulated to provide levels of nutrients that meet an established profile. Presently, the AAFCO Dog or Cat Food Nutrient Profiles are used.
- 2. the product is tested using the appropriate AAFCO Feeding Trial Protocol(s). This means that the product, or "lead" member of a "family" of products, has been fed to dogs or cats under strict guidelines and found to provide proper nutrition. These products should bear the nutritional adequacy statement "Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that (name of product) provides complete and balanced nutrition."
What requirement does a product labeled for senior diet mean?
a "senior" diet must meet the requirements for adult maintenance, but no more.
A product that does not meet the maintenance or growth methods for substantiation of nutritional adequacy must state that "this product is intended for intermittent or supplemental feeding only," What are the exceptions?
unless the product is conspicuously identified as a “snack,” “treat.” or “supplement.”
Define the term natural
lacks artificial flavors, colors, or preservatives in the product.
Are premium, ultra premium or gourmet better?
Products labeled as premium or gourmet are not required to contain any different or higher quality ingredients, nor are they held up to any higher nutritional standards than are any other complete and balanced products.
What is the ideal body condition for a dog?
4 - 5
What is the ideal body condition for a cat?
List the 5 functions of the digestive system
- Absorption of nutrients
- Elimination of waste
List the parts of the Digestive System
- Small Intestine
- Large Intestine
- Accessory Glands (Salivary glands, Liver & Pancreas)
Name the 3 Accessory Glands
- Salivary glands
Canine dental formula
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3)
Cat Dental formula
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2, M 1/1)
Cattle Dental formula
2(I 0/0, C 0/1, P 3/3, M 3/3)
Horse dental formula
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 3/3)
What is the function of tonsils?
- Fight off infection
- Palatine, Lingual, Pharyngeal
Pyloric part of stomach
Describe the ruminant stomach
- Rumen - holding/fermenting vat Disease - Ruminal Tymphany
- Reticulum - AKA honeycomb Disease - Hardware disease
- Omasum - Serves to grind - AKA Book Stomach
- Abomasum - True Stomach where digestion starts Problem with twisted abomasum
Function of the salivary gland
List the 3 pairs
- Moistens food
- Parotid, Mandibular, Submandibular
Function of the pancreas
To release hormones and enzymes
List hormones secreted by the Islet of Langerhans and what they do
- Alpha cells - glucagon which elevates blood sugar
- Beta cells - secrete insulin reduces blood sugar
- Delta cells - secrete somatostatin inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
List 4 Function of the liver
- Detoxifies toxins
- Temporary storage of fatty acids
- Secretion of bile
- Converts sugars into glycogen
How do you assess hydration?
- skin turgidity, eyes sunken, recessed (4, 7, 10%)
- Moisture of mucous membranes
- Heart rate
- Peripheral pulse
How do you replace fluid in a dehydrated animal?
- Per Os
4 Functions of Water
- A. Regulate body temperature
- B. Maintain electrolyte concentrations (sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium
- C. Medium for chemical reactions – Water is the #1 solvent in the world
- D. Lubricate body tissues especially joints
Why does a dog on IV fluid they may still exhibit a need for water.
Thirst is stimulated by Hypothalamas when there is a lack of water in stomach (gastric factor) which an IV doesn't satisfy.
50# dog with 5% dehydration
800# horse with 5% dehydration
- utilization of all nutrients
- Heat to maintain body temperature.
Define Gross Energy
The heat given off when food is completely burned (using a Bomb Calorimeter) to its oxidation products: carbon dioxide, water and other gases.
Define Digestible Energy
Determined by an animal feeding trial. Food consumption and fecal excretion are measured and a gross energy determination of both food and feces is made. The D.E. value is calculated by subtracting fecal energy output from food energy input
Define Metabolized Energy
Determined by a feeding trial. This differs from D.E. in that urine output is also subtracted from the food energy input.
Define Net Energy
determined by measuring body heat losses and subtracting it from the Metabolized Energy value
Name 10 essential proteins needed by dogs:
Arginine, Leucine, Phenylalanine, Valine, Histadine, Lysine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, and Threonine.
What additional essential protein is needed by cats?
Define Crude Protein
the NITROGEN (found in protein and amino acids) in a food source.
What is the formula for crude protein?
% Nitrogen X 6.25
Define Biological Value
Estimate of PROTEIN QUALITY. The BV reflects the number and amount of essential amino acids the food contains. BV is written as a %. It equals the percentage of a nutrient that is absorbed and utilized by the body
Egg – 100% Milk - 92% Liver – 79% Wheat- 48% Corn – 45%
Protein is converted to_______. Is is utilized and _________ is released as a by-product. That by product is converted into ______ in the _____ and then is excreted by the ____
Urea (waste) is the ______ end product of protein metabolism
- Amino Acids
- Ammonia (NH4)
- Urea liver kidneys
Protein restriction results in
- retarded growth
- inadequate tissue repair
- energy shortage
How do we test for Protein Metabolism?
BUN – Blood Urea Nitrogen Test for kidney evaluation.
Normal Values – BUN –
15-20 mg/dl for most species
Classification of Carbohydrates
- 1. Simple Sugars – one molecule – easily broken down. Sugars that are easily broken down to be absorbed by the body. Monosaccharides Example: Glucose & Fructose.
- 2. Complex Sugars – Formed by combining 2 molecules of monosaccharides Dissacarrides. Example Sucrose, Maltose & Lactose.
- 3. Trisaccharides – Consists of 1 molecule each of Glucose, galactose and fructose. Example: Raffinose
- 4. Polysaccharides – Made up of numerous molecules of simple sugars. Example: Dextrin, starch, cellulose, glycogen
Some digestion of carbohydrates occurs in the mouth by the enzyme _____. The primary site of digestion occurs in the ____.
Starch, glycogen and disaccharides are broken down to _________. Must be
broken down to before it can be absorbed.
- Salivary amylase
Metabolism of most carbohydrates in pet rations are absorbed as _____. Must be broken down to _____.
- Characteristics: Hyperglycemia; Obesity; Genetic Predisposition; Poor diet; Hormonal abnormals; Pharmaceuticals; Gender
- Affects: Neutered, Middle aged, Sedentary, Obese
- Symptoms: 1) Extreme weight loss 2) Polyuria, 3) Polydipsia, 4) Polyphagia
- Diagnosis: Glucosuria – persistent or stress induced; Hyperglycemia – hematologic analysis
- Treatment: Diet, Exercise, Insulin Therapy
- Exercise: Toys, Laser pointer, Virtual fishbowl
- Insulin Therapy: PZI; Glargine; Detemir
- Maintenance: Feeding schedules – small meals 4X daily; Monitor water intake; Blood glucose concentrations –target 83-133 mg/dl; Clinical; Home monitoring
If your body can’t get any glucose it will start producing glucose from proteins and fats.
The main fiber carbohydrates are:
- 1. Cellulose
- 2. Hemicellulose
- 3. Pectin
- 4. Lignin
Benefits of Fiber
- Prevention of constipation
- Promote colonic peristalsis
- Water absorbing properties
- Increased fiber may reduce caloric intake while giving a full feeling
Four main functions of fat
- 1. Supply energy provides more energy than protein or carbs p/gm of food
- 2. Palatability
- 3. Essential fatty acids – necessary for skin and coat
- 4. Carry fat soluble vitamins (A, E, D & K)
3 Essential Fatty Acids
- 1. Linoleic Acid
- 2. Linolenic Acid
- 3. Arachidonic Acid
Cats have dietary essential fatty acid requirements for
Arachidonic Acid which is of animal origin
- Symptoms: 1. Abdominal pain; 2. Vomiting; 3. Elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase, lipase); 4. Diarrhea – not a lot of this
- Causes: 1. Hyperlipemia; 2. Obesity; 3.
- Infectious Disease – pancreatitis is secondary disease (parvo, distemper); 4. Trauma – hit by car
- Lab Analysis: Elevated Lipase and amylase
- Treatment: 1. Nothing per os (NPO); 2. Intravenous fluids; 3. Anti-inflammatory drugs
- Dietary Management: Diet low in fat; No table food.
4 Fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
2 Functions of Vitamin D
Calcium metabolism and synthesize UV rays from the sun
Vitamin A deficiency causes
Vitamin A is found in
beta-carotene which is yellow pigment in plants
Other name for Vitamin E
Vitamin E deficiency in dogs is characterized by
Brown Bowel Syndrome
What vitamin is essential for clotting mechanism?
Cholecalciferol is the proper name for
Explain Sweet Clover
When sweet clover hay is cut, if not allowed to dry, the hay becomes moldy and produces a toxin called coumarin or dicoumarol. Coumarin blocks the vitamin K in production of prothrombin.
Bracken fern causes horses to be unable to absorb
What deficiency causes “Perosis” in poultry
Vitamin A is stored in the
Most common Vitamin B6
Black tongue is a deficiency of what vitamin?
Curled Toe Paralysis is a deficiency of what vitamin?
RIBOFLAVIN (Vit B2)
Name 3 trace minerals and give information on the mineral
- Cobalt is a component in Vitamin B12
- Sulphur – Occurs in amino acids, cystine and methionine
- Silicon – Important to bone mineralization
Function of Iodine
synthesis of two hormones produced by the thyroid gland. These hormones are necessary for the regulation of cell oxidation
Mulberry Heart Disease is a deficiency of what
Goiter is a deficiency of
Hepatosis dietetica is a deficiency of
Enzootic Ataxia is a deficiency of
Osteomalacia is a deficiency of
White Muscle Disease is a deficiency of
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a deficiency of
Grass Tetany is a deficiency of
Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy is a deficiency of
What breed is associated with Copper Storage Disease
2 species that are affected with Magnesium deficiency
Cats and Cows
Symptoms of sodium deficiency
Fatigue, exhaustion, inability to maintain water balance, decreased water intake, retarded growth, dryness of skin and loss of hair
What is irons main function?
2 anemias associated with iron
List and explain 2 disease associated with bones
- Rickets - Disease of young growing animals caused by a deficiency in phosphorus and Vitamin D. Failure of the bones to calcify
- Canine Hip Dysplasia – genetic problem
- manifested by a small acetabulum, a misshapen femoral head. Usually causes lameness and pain in the joint
Function of Calcium & Phosphorus
- normal bone development
- rigidity for bones and teeth
- aid in blood coagulation
- necessary for nerve excitability
Function of Magnesium
Used in enzymatic reactions, especially the use of amino acids and fatty acids for energy
Function of SODIUM
- Sodium aids in the transfer of nutrients and the removal of waste from the cells.
- Produces bile needed in the digestion of fats and carbohydrates.
Function of Chloride
Needed for the formation of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices, which is used to digest protein.
Function of Potassium
needed for proper enzyme, muscle, nerve function, fluid balance and appetite
zinc improves the
Function of Manganese
- essential for normal reproduction.
- glucose utilization and
- involved in the production of insulin and prothrombin.
Function of Copper
- Used for mobilizing iron for hemoglobin synthesis
- maturation of collagen, pigmentation of hair, neural transmission.
The function of selenium is associated with ____________ they go hand in hand
Most common disease associated with selenium deficiency is in
calves, lambs and foals
2 diseases associated with selenium diseases in pigs are
- Mulberry Heart Disease
- Hepatosis dietetica
Explain PTH, Calcitonin and Vitamin D
- Parathyroid Hormone - PTH, necessary for moving calcium from bone. Prevents having continual bone growth.
- Calcitonin - inhibits bone resorption.
- Vitamin D - Promotes intestinal calcium
Iron is necessary for __________ production and is beneficial in conditions such as ___________.
__________ is important to birds
Intake of water comes from
- Pet food
- Free choice water
- Metabolized water
How is energy measured
2 surgeries on video
- Nasoesophageal tube
Dwarfism is caused by
Amt of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree celcius
Amt of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water 1 degree celcius
Amino acids joined by peptide linkage
Inflammation of fatty tissue