Card Set Information

2013-05-01 11:30:02

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  1. What are the 3 reasons for assessing IOA?
    • Consistency of measurement
    • Minimizes observer bias
    • reflects the quality of operational definition
  2. Be able to calculate IOA using the frequency ratio method, Point-by-PointAgreement Ratio method (scoring agreements as occurrences and non-occurrences), andfrequency-within-interval method.
    FREQ RATIO - smaller total/larger total X 100

    Point By Point - Agreements/agreements +Disagreements X 100

    Freq within interval (Disagreements-Total intervals)+(sum of all agreements when small agreement/large agreement)/total intervals x 100
  3. how can you reduce the likelihood that a high percentage of agreements between two observers is the result of chace
    For High rate bx define agreement as bx not occuring

    For low rate bx define agreement as bx occured

    report IOA on agreements and disagreements seperatly
  4. Purpose of baseline and intervention
    • Baseline -
    •     describe current level of Bx
    •     Predict future level if no intervention

    • Intervention
    •    Test is Bx departs from baseline prediction
    •    Describe current level of Bx
    •    Predict future level if intervention remain in place
  5. Describe reversal of behavior procedures
    withdraw intervention

    non-contingent reinforcement

    DRO for any bx other than target bx
  6. problems with a reversal design
    can not reverse learning

    other variable may have control over target Bx

    change agent may not be willing to reverse Bx

    control of Bx could have transfered to different form of Sr
  7. How to indentify the effect of an IV
    all variables present during baseline are held constant during Tx
  8. which experimental designs are most commonly intergrated
    • reversals and multiple baselines
    •     baselines are assessed across multiple settings, participants, bxs

    Changing criterion with reversal

    Multiple tx with reversal
  9. define partial and sequential withdrawal designs and their purpose
    partial - slowly removing the entire tx from one baseline while no changes are made in the other to assess for generalization and transfer of stimulus control

    Sequential - removing one component of a tx package to assess for maintenance requirements
  10. how to maximize probe evaluations
    no programmed consequences

    scheduled infrequently

  11. When and why would a multiple probe technique be recommended?
    When extended baselines are not possible because exposure would cause Bx to change before tx is implemented.

    When implementing sequential treatment because it may not be possible to complete the later steps before the first step is mastered
  12. what info can be gathered when conducting probe sessions throughout the course of an intervention applied to successive approximations
    initial level of bx

    what happens to bx during treatment

    what happens to bx before training or treatment

    what happens to remaining steps when prior step meets mastery

    true baseline of bx
  13. if using a multiple probe design in place of multiple baseline to avoid having to take continuous data that may result in bx change before interverntion, do BLs have to be concurrent and why?
    Yes, baselines should remain concurrent  so that time as an IV can be effectively eliminated as a confound
  14. How is experimental control demonstrated in a multiple treatment design
    by showing a difference in the paths of data in each treatment phase
  15. Describe the purpose ofusing a multiple-schedule design.
    to show that Bx is under control of stimulus conditions
  16. What is multiple treatmentinterference?
    • The effect of one
    • treatment influencing the effect of another.
  17. Two design modification that can enhance experimental control when using a multielement design
    most effective treatment associated with all conditions in the final phase

    conduct a mini reversal by applying the least effective treatment to the other conditions
  18. Given that the inclusion of a BL phase is not a technical requirement of an alternating tx design, why is it that most alternating tx studies use a BL phase
    incase there is no difference in the data paths of treatment

    To enhance experimental control

    to demonstrate the absolute effect of the intervention
  19. If performance surpasses the criterion in a changing criterion design can a functional relationship be demonstrated?
    Yes, through mant criterion changes and mini-reversals of criterion
  20. what difficulties are associate with changing criterion designs that have unidirectional changes over the course of the intervention.  

    how can experimental control be enhanced
    changes can be so small they dont approximate a stepwise change

    changes may exceed criterion leaving room for alternative explanations for the change in Bx

    Experimental control can be enhanced through mini reversals
  21. clinical implications of bi-directional changes in a changing criterion design
    Termination of the treatment may result in a return to baseline performance.

    additional steps to transfer stimulus control is neccessary
  22. What is the problem with having too many shifts in criteria (changing criterion)
    • Changes in criterion are too small
    •   may need reversal to enhance experimental control

    may not have enough time for each phase to stablize
  23. three guidelines in steps or changes in criterion
    change should be gradual

    changes should be large enough so that changes in Bx are detectable

    Cirterion changes do not have to be equal
  24. what is meant by the statement there is a general relationship between the variability in the clients performance and the amount of change in the criterion that may need to be made
    The variability in performance should guide criterion selection

    • high variability -  large magnitude
    • Low variability - small magnitude
  25. Distinct characteristics of skinner approach to single case research
    • one or a few participants
    • freq as a measure of data
    • visual inspection
  26. what is wrong with using group design to investigate clinical or therapeutic interventions
    group designs mask individual differences

    therapeutic interventions are often conducted 1 on 1

    group designs not conducted in natural environmet
  27. two considerations when intervening on problem bxs
    intervention is socially acceptable

    intervention and outcome is age appropriate
  28. two social validation methods
    social comparison - gathering normative data from peers

    social validation - gathering information from experts (teachers, doctors, parents)
  29. define internal, external and construct validity
    Internal - manipulation of IV is responsible for changes in DV

    External - outcome of intervention is generalizable

    Construct - understanding the underlying mechanism responsible for changes in the DV
  30. how to minimize reactivity
    train observers to ignore extraneous variables

    having observers take treatment integrity and IOA data

    minimize cues associated with target Bx
  31. when would sample session records differ from whole session records
    when the target bx is low frequency

    when sample session is short and whole interval is long

    when the duration of target bx is short
  32. describe the characteristic primary measures used to evaluate performance must have?
    • Administered repeatedly - can be administered continually over time
    • Consistency of measurement - minmal error
    • Capacity to reflect change - must show changes
    • Dimensional Scale - not binary (yes, no, complete, non complete)
    • Relevance of measure - should assess problem directly
    • Importance of measure - should be socially important
  33. What are the 5 points related to validity ofmeasurement?
    single measure does not convey the complete construct

    observations are limited to specific situations(Will behavior be the same in less structured environments)

    Does the measure assess something important

    the human filter can alter data

    Is the change observed important
  34. What are the critical differences between discrete categorization and frequency measures?
    Freq - single response performance measures are tallied- no real time limit 

    Discrete - several Bxs included- limited # of opportunities to perform
  35. Describe the two main versions of time-basedmeasurement.
    Interval recording - bx observed for a single block divided into several small blocks of time per day

    Response Duration- the amount of time the response is performed, good for continuous rather than discrete bxs
  36. Separate groups are used in research when one is interested in evaluating different levels of variables that are introduced initially to the subject(s) who have not previously been exposed to any experimental phase.  Can you think of another way this couldbe accomplished, other than separating participants into two differentgroups?
    You can use the same groups just randomize the order of treatments
  37. Why is steady state responding not necessarilyindicative of the independent variable being applied accurately?
    The fallacy of affirming the consequence

    If the IV is functionally related to the DV  then the DV will have a steady state

    DV responding is steady thus the IV must have been applied accurately
  38. Explain why anticipated changes in behavior when the treatment variable is applied do not necessarily indicate a robust functional relationship.
    because the experimenter must prove that those changes in the DV are a product of IV manipulation and nothing else
  39. Explain why discontinuous sampling methods may be contraindicated for small treatment effects.
    because it increased the likelihood of false negative interpretations of a functional relations
  40. How can a functional relationship be demonstrated using a non-concurrent multiple baseline
    use more baseline phases

    mini reversals

    number of datapoint during baseline
  41. When using a multiple baseline design across behaviors or settings, what mightbe a risk of keeping one behavior or setting in baseline for an extendedperiod of time? How do you know when to intervene with the secondbaseline?
    Maturation, learning

    When the data is stable.  No trends
  42. What does interdependence of baselines refer to?
    changes in one baseline effect bx in other baselines
  43. When baseline phases are extended for a prolonged period, performance maysometimes improve even before the intervention has been applied. What aresome reasons that may account for this?
    interdependence of bxs

    learning may have occured - changes do to observation or direct practice

    social environment changes based on changes to Bx in the first intervention
  44. How can problems with prolonged baselines be avoided?
    periodic assessment 

    staggered baseline assessment
  45. What are the requirements for making comparisons across baselines in multiplebaseline designs? Explain the rationale for each requirement. (Will discuss further in class)
    each baseline must be independent

    demonstrate sensitivity of second baseline to the intervention

    When intervention is ongoing in one baseline the control condition must be ongoing in the others

    overlap between control and intervention must be long enough to allow extraneous variables associated with the IV to emerge during control

    extraneous variables must be present in treatment and baseline conditions
  46. 1.     Whatare quasi-experimental designs and why are they important?
    • a.  Designs
    • in which the condition of a true experiment is approximated and or post hoc
    • analysis

    • b.     They
    • allow for the evaluations and inferences to be drawn from programs that cant
    • afford costs or the time associated with experimental rigors
  47. 1.     What are the 5 ways in which we can remove ambiguities from quasi-experimentaldesigns?
    • a.     Collect
    • systematic data

    • i.     Any
    • quantitative data

    • b.     Assess
    • behavior on multiple occasions

    • i.     Looking
    • at behavior across intervals (ie. months)

    • c.     Consider
    • past and future projections of performance

    • i.      

    • d.     Consider
    • the type of effect associated with treatment

    • i.     Looking
    • for immediate and dramatic changes associated with treatment

    • e.     Use
    • multiple and heterogeneous participants

    • Replication of the
    • change in behavior across multiple different individuals  
  48. 1.    Whatdoes the evaluation of treatment procedures in the quasi-experimental designinvolve? 
  49. a.   Listing all known threats to the validity of the interpretation of the effects of the
    treatment, decide whether they are plausible as explanations
  50. 1.     What isan interrupted time-series design?
    • a.     A
    • series of observations at time removed from the immediate initiation of the
    • treatment both before and after