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the processes or mechanisms by which we permanently store that which we have been exposed to or learn
Psychologically, how can memory/learning be explained?
- conditioned responses (unpleasant odors)
- repetitive learning
- aversion learning
- conceptual learning
- integration learning
going over and over the info again and again
- used w/ smoking or dieting
- avoiding an activity
- i.e., rubber band snaps if you cuss
- negative way usually but may be seen in therapy
the big picture
- putting things together
How does physiology explain how memory is stored in the CNS?
- only a very small portion of info is stored and retained; only if important to us
- we constantly process our environment, but we don't usually remember all of it
- there are many parts of the brain that process info
What are the 2 most important parts of the brain that process info?
- amygdaloid nuclear process
Describe the amygdala and hippocampus:
- bilateral structures
- all experiences go through here and are processed for retention
- form neural circuits to other parts of the brain (to and from)
Where are the amygdala and hippocampus?
deep in temporal brain
- neural circuit, that connects a sensory event w/ a learned behavioral response, is altered in some way to support learning
- part of conscious memory
What is an example of memory trace?
Dr. Garrison getting pulled over by a cop; he may not remember what other cars are around him, but he remembers the cop
- occurs if the experience is somewhat permanently retained
- part of conscious memory
What is an example of memory consolidations?
Dr. Garrison retelling his story numerous times to faculty and students
How long does memory consolidation take?
can occur quickly or take long periods of time
What variables influence consolidation? (how quickly, or long, or degree to which consolidations takes place)
- Catecholamine (adrenaline) levels in the body
- physiological states
- sleep deprivation
When do you have high adrenaline levels?
important events that you're very excited about (or dangerous events --car accident)
Are you more likely to remember something when you have high or low adrenaline levels?
High levels help you:
remember, low levels don't
What type of learning is motivation?
Do you learn better when motivated or not motivated?
- when you are interested in what you're learning
Motivation can be linked to:
importance or interest
How does motivation apply to pts?
if you aren't doing something for pts that applies to them, then they won't learn as well
What is our main way of learning?
through motivation (context learning)
How do physiological states influence learning?
enhances poor memory consolidation
What physiological states lead to poor memory consolidation?
- shock (decreased BP means blood isn't doing job as well and isn't feeding the brain)
- emotional trauma
If you see something very traumatic and you aren't use to trauma, you may:
be in shock so it is not good for you to be an eye-witness because your memory is not accurate
How does sleep deprivation effect learning?
- adverse affects b/c you don't go through the consolidation process
- pulling all-nighters for tests isn't good
All physiological states preclude efficient:
long-term potentiation and thus consolidation
Trace memory -> consolidation memory -> anatomical parts ->
What does LTP stand for?
- learn something over and over
- occurs at the cellular level involving cell membrane
- classical explanation of molecular basis of memory
What type of process is long-term potentiation?
Original studies and most current studies of LTP use what?
- neurons (synapses) in the hippocampus
- dissect neurons of hippocampus and put them in petri dishes or do fMRI
Where is memory retained?
synapses of brain
Extensive research in animals shows that following a heavy train of stimulation (real fast stimulation), the postsynaptic excitatory potentials have:
an increase in amplitude which can last for varying periods of time (days or weeks)
- occurs at molecular level
- following heavy train of stimulation, the postsynaptic excitatory potentials have an increase in amplitude which can last for varying periods of time
If the postsynaptic amplitude is increased for weeks, then the neuron is:
If the postsynaptic amplitude is increased for weeks, how is the neuron different?
- increase firing of postsynaptic neuron due to variety of stimuli (glutamate is the NT)
- increased firing rate associated w/ increased activation of glutamate receptors
- ligand gated channels open resulting in an influx of Ca
- increased Ca enhances enzymatic cascades in postsynaptic cell (modulates nature of postsynaptic membrane receptrs and makes them more sensitive)
- nitic oxide is formed and diffuses back across synapse to increase effectiveness of presynaptic membrane (making glutamate release easier)
So Ca changes receptors on:
Nitric Oxide diffuses back to presynaptic cell and helps:
What is LTD?
Is long-term depression similar to long-term potentiation?
similar, but w/ an opposite/reverse effect (you lose memory!)
What do biochemical changes do to long-term depression?
decrease effectiveness of synapses (overtime we forget things)
What anatomical changes occur in LTP?
- increase in # and types of synapses and increase in function; associated w/ increase in activity
- neurons like to talk to each other
- dendritic tree forms new spines
- axons form collaterals
What principle can be applied to memory?
- use it or lose it
- CNS needs to be challenged
What anatomical changes occur in LTD?
- membranes lose sensitivity and proper synapses are not in place
- dendritic spines wither away when not used reducing the number of synapses
What are the classification of memory?
- declarative memory
- non-declarative memory
- conscious, explicit, cognitive
- remembering facts, events, concepts, and locations
Are declarative memories easily verbalized?
What do declarative memories require during recall?
attention --not reflexive, you have to think about it
How many stages are involved with declarative memory?
What is the 1st stage of declarative memory?
- immediate memory (1-2 sec) similar to trace memory
- used to plan a response to some stimulus
- no long term memory here (unless very important)
What is the 2nd stage of declarative memory?
- short-term memory/working memory/primary memory
- may last only minutes or days unless reinforced (doesn't last forever)
Which cortex is involved w/ the 2nd stage of declarative memory?
pre-frontal cortex -primary intellectual area (cognition, intellect, IQ)
Which association areas are involved w/ the 2nd stage of declarative memory?
- areas of primary functional cortical areas (association areas of all cortices)
- Ex: visual association area stores visual memory
What is the 3rd stage of declarative memory?
- long-term memory/remote memory
- involves short-term memory which has been permanently consolidated and stored in the area which 1st processed it
Where are 3rd stage declarative memories stored?
hippocampus or amygdala
Where are visual or auditory stimuli ultimately processed?
- through hippocampus and association area
- then if consolidated and stored permanently, then it is stored in primary cortical area
- superior temporal gyrus - if you heard a great song
Where is the memory of smell stored?
What are the special types of declarative memory?
- people remember their own experiences as they happened in a specific place and time in their own history (ex: can't tell the story unless they go through the whole process)
- type of long-term memory
- form which deals w/ general knowledge
- learning in school
- provides database required for thinking/knowledge base allows you to think and make decisions
- type of long term memory
If it is super specific memory, then it is:
semantic memory (very explicit info)
Where do you 1st process a stimuli?
in cerebral cortex
After processed in cerebral cortex info goes to:
hippocampus or amygdala
From hippocampus/amygdala to be stored in:
After stored in pre-frontal cortex it goes through:
consolidation process (stored where 1st processed)
After consolidation process it is put:
in long-term memory in either hippocampus or area of brain that 1st processed it
implicity memory/procedural/unconcscious/skill and habit memory
In non-declarative memory, the person has no previous awareness of:
memory, can't describe learned info except through behavior and can't necessarily remember how, when, or where the learning occured
What is an example of non-declarative memory?
- may remember to tie shoes, but don't remember exactly how you learned
- typing on keyboard, but can't remember even what year you learned how to type
- learning to play piano over time
Where are non-declarative memories stored?
- cerebellum, basal ganglia, and amygdala
- stored in central pattern generators b/c these are learned motor activities
What is the biggest problem with memory?
loss of long term memory
loss of memory prior to trauma or disease
loss of memory of events which follow trauma or disease
When does anterograde amnesia present?
amygdala and hippocampus are damaged and not processing info
Which type of memory is involved in amnesia?
- both declarative and nondeclarative memory
- may forget how to tie your shoe or a birthday
When is the Marine corps birthday?
Nov. 10th 1775