Card Set Information
Exotic Animals Final
Exotic Animals Final
How many species of reptiles are there?
What continent does not have reptiles?
What are the three different orders of reptiles?
What reptiles are in the order Chelonia?
What reptiles are in the order Crocadilia?
What reptiles are in the order Squamata?
What is ectothermic?
reptiles behaviorally modify body temperature - go under the light to get warm and move away from the light to get cool
Do reptiles have lungs?
What kind of metabolic rates do reptiles have?
low metabolic rates
What covers a reptiles body?
scales or plates
What is POTZ?
preferred optimum temperature zone
How warm should a tropical reptiles cage be?
79 - 98 degrees
How warm should a temperate reptiles cage be?
75 - 85 degrees
What are ways we can heat a reptiles cage?
heaters under the cage
ceramic or other heating pads
When should we turn the reflector lamp off?
at night - leave the red lamp on to keep cage warm
What other animal are reptiles anatomically similar to?
What kind of heart do reptiles have?
3 chambered heart
How many lungs do snakes have?
Where are the testes in reptiles?
Do reptiles have a cloaca?
How do reptiles reproduce?
some hatch eggs internally
Are reptile young precocious or atricial?
What are some ways we can get information on reptiles?
companies marketing products
When do reptiles show signs of disease?
late in the disease
What do most reptiles carry that can make us sick?
Do reptiles get sick from salmonella?
What does salmonella affect?
Can we culture our reptiles to see if they carry salmonella?
yes, but a negative culture doesn't necessarily mean they don't carry salmonella
What types of people are more affected by salmonella?
It is illegal to sell turtles under _____. Why?
children were putting them in their mouths and getting sick
What does the blood of reptiles look like?
all cells are nucleated
similar to birds
will see azurophils
blood values are much lower than in mammals
What must be available if a practice is going to treat poisonous species?
What do we need to wear if we are dealing with reptiles that are poisonous spitters?
How do we chemically restrain a reptile?
can use ketamine/acepromazine - 55 - 80 mg/kg
What do we do for a reptile when they come into the clinic for an exam?
review management of the animal with client
physical - always check mouth
What are some common problems we see in reptiles?
metabolic bone disease
infectious diseases exist
What kind of mg/kg do we use for drugs in reptiles as compared to mammals?
less mg/kg than mammals due to lower metabolic rates
What kind of drugs do we need to be aware of using with reptiles?
What can cause a reptile to be anorexic?
may be disease related or due to poor husbandry
some reptiles fast periodically
When do we need to intervene when a reptile is not eating?
when they lose >10% of body weight
What are the signs of a respiratory disease in reptiles?
open mouth breathing
What can respiratory diseases be due to in reptiles?
What can cause wounds in reptiles?
Are parasites common in reptiles?
yes very common
Which type of parasite is frequently found?
nematodes are also common
Do reptiles get external parasites?
Are the same drugs we use in mammals to treat parasites safe for reptiles?
not all of them are safe
What type of protozoa will we see in reptiles?
amoeba (treat with flagyl)
flagellates (treat with flagyl)
coccidia (treat with sulfas)
cryptosporidia (no treatment)
What kind of nematodes will we see in reptiles?
How do we treat reptiles for nematodes?
treat as for mammals but avoid ivermectins in chelonians
Which external parasite is common in snakes?
How do we treat reptiles for external parasites?
treat with synthetic pyrethroids <0.03% then rinse off cage and reptile once it dries
How do we give fluid therapy to reptiles?
2 parts 2.5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl plus 1 part normosol
PO is the easiest way but can give SQ, IV, or IO in proximal femur
Do reptiles have an epiglottis?
Where do we give IM injections in reptiles?
epaxial musculature in snakes
use front half of their body
in other reptiles use muscles in forelegs
Where do we collect blood in reptiles?
right jugular vein in chelonians and lizards
ventral tail vein in most species
brachial vein in chelonians
How do reptiles shed?
snakes shed in one piece
other reptiles shed piecemeal (pieces at a time)
What is dysecdysis? What is a retained spectacle?
: shedding does not come off eye - just pull it off gently
Which snakes are the most common for pets?
boids - pythons, boa constrictors
colubrids - corn, rat, king, garter snakes
Which snakes are poisonous?
vipers - rattlers, copperheads, cottonmouth
What do we feed snakes?
they are carnivorous so we feed them rodents, frogs, eggs, other snakes
When do we feed snakes?
every 1 - 2 weeks - monthly
some fast normally
What should a snakes habitat look like?
temperature variables - POTZ at 75 - 85 degrees
provide hiding place
provide water for soaks
need suitable light for 10 - 12 hours a day
How do we determine the sex of a snake?
probe for hemipenes
: males go >9 subcaudal scales, females go <4 subcaudal scales
What can cause stomatitis in a snake?
What does stomatitis look like in a snake?
ulcers, reddening, necrosis
gram negative bacteria
What can dermatitis in a snake be due to?
What is inclusion body disease?
retrovirus seen in most boids
chronic regurgitation, CNS signs (stargazing)
euthanasia is the best option
What is orphidian paramyxovirus?
see in most vipers
nasal discharge and open mouth breathing
What are the two viruses we see in reptiles and which reptile do we see it in?
inclusion body disease (retrovirus)
seen only in snakes
Can eggs get stuck causing dystocia?
How do we handle dystocia in reptiles?
What can cause an intestinal obstruction in snakes?
Do snakes get neoplasia?
yes, similar to those seen in mammals
it is a common finding
What are saurians?
What are the two poisonous species of saurians?
gila monster and beaded lizard
What is the biggest saurian?
komodo dragon - can weigh up to 300 pounds
What kind of substrate should we use for saurians? What should we avoid?
avoid gravel/cedar shaving
What should the humidity be like in a tank for a saurian?
50 - 70%
What should the habitat be like for a saurian?
limbs for arboreal species
full spectrum light is best - unfiltered sunlight good, but may see behavioral changes
What are the different carnivorous lizards?
monitors and tegus
What should we feed carnivorous lizards?
feed prekilled prey - rodents preferable
What can happen to a carnivorous lizard if we feed them dog and cat food for an extended period of time?
can cause hypercalcemia
Which lizards are insectivores?
What do we feed insectivorous lizards?
well fed insects such as crickets, wax worms, caterpillars, grasshoppers
use a vitamin and mineral supplement to dust insects
What are the different types of herbivorous lizards?
prehensile - tailed skink
Which lizards are hind gut fermenters?
How big can iguanas get?
can read 6 feet
What do we feed iguanas and how often?
greens, beans, sprouts, tofu, broccoli
use vitamin/mineral supplement
feed young daily and adults every 48 hours
What happens to male iguanas when they mature?
become very aggressive
How can we sex lizards?
femoral pores - more pronounced in males
What kind of problems do iguanas get?
metabolic bone disease
What causes metabolic bone disease?
diet lacks calcium
How do we diagnose metabolic bone disease?
What causes dystocia in lizards?
may start laying and then stop
How do we correct dystocia in lizards?
provide correct substrate
some use Ca then oxytocin
may gently manipulate the egg
may lube oviduct thru cloaca
oviductectomy or caesarian section
Which reptiles get bladder stones? How do we diagnose this and treat this?
lizards and some tortoises
How long can chelonians live?
some live over 100 years
How do we breed chelonians?
plastron concave in males
need to be healthy
need to have correct substrate
What do we feed tortoises?
they are herbivores
dark greens, grasses, broccli, trout chow, rab pellets
What do we feed terrapins?
they are carnivores
fish, insects, shrimp
may only eat in the water
as they age some become herbivores
What positions we do take radiographs for turtles? What do we look for?
AP and lateral
eggs, masses, or lung disease
What are some common problems with chelonians?
ulcerative shell disease
bladder stones in desert tortoises
Are respiratory diseases common in turtles?
What are the clinical signs of a respiratory disease in turtles?
open mouth breathing
What are the clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency in turtles?
swelling around eye
may resemble an URI
Which turtles get vitamin A deficiencies?
on high protein, vitamin A deficient diets
What are the clinical signs of dystocia in turtles?
blood from vent
eggs on radiographs
What is ulcerative shell disease?
antibiotics to treat
improve water quality
What causes a soft shell in turtles?
metabolic bone disease
deformed or soft shell
more in aquatic species of turtles
What do crocadilians eat?
they are carnivorous
feed rodents, fish, and birds
What kind of habitat do we provide crocodilians?
require water - filtration required and cleaned frequently
need area to get out of water
What is the main dietary problem seen in crocodilians?
steatitis - yellow fat disease caused by vitamin E deficiency
caused by feeding frozen fish
see lethargy and death
fat is yellow and firm