Card Set Information
Thurston County EMT
What is the leading cause of death in children under 14?
birth to 30 days old
What are the airway differences in children?
tongue is larger
smaller nose and mouth
trachea is narrower
cricoid cartilage is less rigid
airway is in general more easily obstructed
What are the anatomical differences in a child's head?
proportionally larger than adults
infants cannot support own head
What are the anatomical differences in a child's chest and lungs?
ribs are more pliable
lung tissue more fragile
normal for abdominal movement with inhalation
chest muscles used as accessory muscles
Infants and children less than 5 y/o breath at a rate of ___ to ___ times faster than adults.
2 to 3
_______ is a late sign of hypoxia for infants and children.
For newborns, _______ is the initial response to hypoxia
What are two organs that are more exposed and less protected in a child's abdomen?
liver and spleen
What are the three components of the pediatric assessment triangle?
work of breathing
circulation to the skin
What should the EMT do in the case of an unresponsive infant or child with a FBAO? (list the steps)
place infant on firm flat surface
provide 30 chest compressions, then look for obstruction and remove if visible
provide 2 ventilations
continue ventilations and compressions until object is removed
What is considered cardiac arrest in a child?
heart rate less than 60 bpm
What will increased respiratory effort in children look like?
use of intercostals
grunting (exerting pressure to get air out)
breathing rate elevated
What is considered respiratory arrest in children?
breathing rates less than 10/minute
What are the things that can cause seizures in children?
sudden onset of high fever (febrile)
What are the s/s of meningitis?
sensitivity to light
What is the care for poisoning?
: contact poison control and administer activated charcoal if advised, provide O2, monitor, transport
: ensure airway, be ready with suction, ALS upgrade, rule out trauma
What are the common causes of shock in children?
What are the s/s of shock in children?
rapid respiratory rate
pale, cool, clammy skin
weak or absent distal pulses
delayed cap refill
decreased urine output
dry mucous membrane
All drowning/near drowning require this....
Define abuse vs neglect
: improper or excessive action causing injury or harm
: giving insufficient attention to someone who has claim to that attention
List the s/s of abuse in children in young children according to protocol
inappropriate sexual knowledge
Responding to a sudden unexpected death or serious injury in a child, the EMT should...
insure safety and provide medical aid as needed to save/assist the child
if child is clearly dead, do not move the body
ensure law enforcement has been notified
document all adults and children present
document all statements and demeanor of speakers
document all observations of the environment
consider and record the child's developmental level
know signs of possible abuse and neglect
List the signs of abuse in older children according to protocol
inability to concentrate in school
drop in grades
comments about suicide
poor relations with peers
What are some of the complications with a tracheostomy tube?
bleeding around the hole
becomes dislodged/blocked by mucous
infection around tube
According to appendix E - infant transfer, qualified persons can accept custody of a newborn, which is defined as less than _____ old.
According to appendix E - infant transfer, the EMT should do these things upon the transfer of custody...
notify dispatch and request ALS response
medically assess infant and provide care as needed
determine whether the transferor is the parent while protecting annonymity
attempt to obtain date and time of birth
ensure the situation fits within RCW 13.34.360
attempt to obtain family medical hx
notify CPS (1-866-END-HARM) within 24 hrs
if child is not newborn, notify LE and CPS
if "qualified person" is not present when infant has been transferred, ask transferor to wait for qualified person
What does neonatal resuscitation consist of?
chest compressions at 1/3 depth of the chest
3 compressions to 1 ventilation
rescue breathing rate of 40-60 breaths per minute
What is epiglottitis and what are the hallmark symptoms?
inflammation of the eppiglotis
drooling is a hallmark symptom b/c of painful swallowing
will also present with fever, hoarse voice, and stridor
Define and list the symptoms of laryngitis.
inflammation of the larynx
hoarse voice or inability to speak
dry, burning throat
difficulty swallowing and/or breathing
List the steps for relieving choking in a responsive victim 1 year of age or older.
stand/kneel behind victim and wraps arms around victim
make fist with one hand
place fist thumb side against abdomen, in midline, slightly above navel and below breastbone
grasp fist with other hand and give quick, forceful, upward thrusts
repeat thrusts until object is expelled or victim becomes unresponsive
each thrust should be a separate distinct movement
If a choking victim is pregnant, what should the EMT do?
perform chest thrusts instead of abdominal thrusts
List the steps for relieving choking in a responsive infant.
kneel/sit with infant on lap
hold infant face-down with jaw in hand
give 5 back blows between shoulder blades
flip the infant over and give 5 downward chest thrusts with fingertips in the middle of the chest over the lower half of the breastbone at a rate of 1 per second
repeat until object is removed or infant becomes unresponsive
List the developmental markers for newborns and infants (1yr).
minimal stranger anxiety
like to warm
dislikes being separated from parents
dislikes objects near face (use "blow by" for O2)
EMT should observe breathing rate from a distance
EMT should evaluate heart and lungs first with head last
List the developmental markers for toddlers (age 1-3).
prefer remaining dressed (EMT should remove, examine, replace)
dislikes being touched
dislikes being separated from parent
dislikes objects near face
afraid of needles, fear of pain
EMT should reassure child was not "bad"
EMT should examine trunk to head
List the developmental markers for preschool age (3-6 y/o)
dislikes being touched by strangers
dislikes being separated from parents
dislikes objects near face
afraid of blood, pain and permanent injury
modest and shy
EMT should reassure child was not bad and replace clothing after exam
List the developmental markers for school age children (6-12 y/o)
afraid of pain, blood and permanent injury/ disfigurement
List the developmental markers for adolescents (12-18 y/o)
afraid of permanent injury/disfigurement
EMT should treat them as adult
EMT should assess away from parents or guardians