Neuro Exam 4: Frequently used diagnostic terms

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Neuro Exam 4: Frequently used diagnostic terms
2013-04-30 16:45:31

review of frequently used diagnostic terms for exam 4
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  1. akinesia:
    abnormal absence or poverty of movement
  2. agnosia
    inability to recognize objects through any of the special senses (vision, hearing, etc)
  3. apraxia
    in absence of paralysis, pt unable to carry out purposeful, useful, or skilled motor acts
  4. aphasia
    numerous forms of defects in use of language (Broca's aphasia, auditory aphasia, etc)
  5. ataxia
    lack of motor coordination
  6. ataxia
    lack of motor coordination
  7. analgesia
    loss of sensibility of pain
  8. anesthesia
    loss of sensation (may be pain, temperature, crude touch, fine touch, vibratory sense, pressure, etc)
  9. athetosis
    slow, writhing, wormlike movement of distal parts of extremities
  10. adiodochokinesia (dysdiadochokinesia)
    unable to perform rapid or alternating movements
  11. clonus
    spasm in which contraction and relaxation of a muscle alternate in rapid succession
  12. chorea
    sudden and involuntary jerky movement of head, neck and extremities.  Also includes facial grimaces.  Note that jerky movements are well coordinated
  13. dysmetria
    inability to stop a muscular movement at a desired point
  14. dyssynergia:
    disturbances of muscular coordination (jerky, tremor-like voluntary movements)
  15. dysarthria
    slurred or hesitant speech
  16. dyskinesia
    impairment of power of involuntary movement, resulting in fragmentary or incomplete movements
  17. fasciculations:
    small local contraction of mm, visible through skin, representing of a spontaneous discharge of a number of fibers innervated by a single motor nerve filament
  18. hemipllegia:
    paralysis on one side of body
  19. hemisection
    section of one-half of the spinal cord
  20. hypoethesia
    abnormally decreased sensitivity of skin
  21. hypokinesia
    low movement and expression of skin
  22. hypotonia
    loss of muscle tone
  23. miosis
    reduction in size of pupil
  24. myolonus
    shock-like contractions of a portion of a muscle, an entire muscle, or a group of mm, restricted to one area of the body or appearing synchronously or asynchronously in several areas
  25. myotonia
    increased muscular irritability and contractility w/ decreased power of relaxation; tonic spasms of muscle
  26. myotactic
    pertaining to proprioceptive sense of mm
  27. nystagmus
    ataxia of eye movement
  28. paresis
    muscular weakness
  29. paralysis
    loss of movement
  30. paraplegia
    paralysis of both legs
  31. quadraplegia
    paralysis of both lower and upper extremities
  32. strabismus
    a visual disorder in which one eye can't focus with the other (cross-eyed)