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5 functions of Digestion
- 1. Ingestion
- 2. Grinding
- 3. Digestion
- 4. Absorption
- 5. Elimination
7 parts of digestive system
- 1. Mouth
- 2. Pharynx
- 3. Esophagus
- 4. Stomach
- 5. Small Intestine
- 6. Large Intestine
- 7. Accessory Glands (salivary glands, liver, pancreas)
8 parts of the Tooth anatomy
- 1. Crown
- 2. Neck
- 3. Root
- 4. Enamel
- 5. Pulp
- 6. Gumline
- 7. Dentin
- 8. Cementum
Dental Formula for Canine
I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M2/3
Dental formula for Feline
I3/3 C1/1 P3/2 M1/1
Dental for Bovine
I0/3 C0/1 P3/3 M3/3
Dental for Equine
I3/3 C1/1 P3-4/3 M3/3
Name 3 types of tonsils
- 1. Palatine- Man and Dog
- 2. Lingual- Horse, Cow and Pig
- 3. Pharyngeal- Enlargement of these is called adenoids
What kind of tissue are tonsils?
Where is the simple stomach located?
behind the left side of the diaphragm
What are the 3 glands of the simple stomach?
- 1. Cardiac
- 2. Pyloric
- 3. Fundic
Name the 4 parts of the Ruminant Stomach?
- 1. Rumen
- 2. Reticulum
- 3. Omasum
- 4. Abomasum
What two parts of the Ruminant stomach are considered the "True Stomach" and what about "The Fore Stomach"
- True: 1.Abomasum 2.Omasum
- Fore: 1.Rumen 2.Reticulum
What are the Accessory Digestive Organs?
The Salivary Glands (Parotid, Mandibular, Submandibular)
What is the percentage of Water deficit that skin turgidity is lost?
What is the percentage of water deficit that the eyes are sunkin?
What is the percentage of water deficit is death?
10% and above
What are 4 ways to assess hydration of the animal?
- 1. Moisture of Mucous Membranes
- 2. Heart Rate
- 3. Peripheral Pulse (shock)
- 4. PCV
3 methods of fluid replacement?
- 1. Intravenous
- 2. Subcutaneous
- 3. Per Os
What method of Fluid replacement is the fastest?
Intravenous; 100% accurate
What method of Fluid replacement is the slowest?
Per Os; should not be used in vomiting cases
When do we use the Subcutaneous method?
when the IV method cannot be obtained due to small veins or pediatrics
What is the Fluid replacement formula for large animals?
BW (lbs) x % dehydration (decimal) x 500= in ml
What is the Fluid replacement for for small animals?
BW (kgs) x % dehydration (decimal)= L
Fluid MAINTENANCE formula for large dogs
Fluid MAINTENANCE formula for small dogs and cats
4 functions of Water?
- 1. Thermoregulation
- 2. Maintain Electrolyte Concentrations
- 3. Medium for chemical reactions
- 4. Lubricate body tissues
What is Drinking controlled by?
What does the Hypothalmus serve as?
the bodies thermoregulator
What are 3 stimulants of the hypothalmus?
- 1. dryness in the mouth
- 2. Lack of water in the stomach
- 3. Increase in plasma sodium
What happens when the Hypothalmus is stimulated?
An antidiurectic hormone will be released which will cause the animal to be thirsty
What is energy measured in?
What are the 2 types of calories?
Small and Large
What is a Large Calorie?
amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 Kg of water to 1 Cal
What is a small calorie?
amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 gm of water to 1 Cal.
What do calories provide?
- -Utilization of all other nutrients
- - Heat to maintain body temperatures
What is Gross energy?
determined by completely burning the food to its oxidation state products: CO2, HO2 and other gases. The heat given off is considered the G.E.
How is Digestible Energy calculated?
by subtracting fecal energy output from food energy input
How is Metabolizable Energy calculated?
Urine Output and fecal energy output is subtracted from the food energy input
How is Net Energy calculated?
determined by measuring body heat loses and subtracting it from the M.E. value.
Name the 11 essential amino acids.
- 1. Arginine
- 2. Leucine
- 3. Phenylalanine
- 4. Valine
- 5. Histadine
- 6. Lysine
- 7. Tryptophan
- 8. Isoleucine
- 9. Methionine
- 10. Threonine
- 11. Taurine
What is Crude Protein?
- The amount of nitrogen in a food source.
- % Nitrogen x 6.25
What is the Biological Value?
estimate of protein quality; the number and amount of essential amino acids the food contains
BV's of Egg, Milk, Liver, Wheat, Corn?
- Egg- 100%
- Milk- 92%
- Liver- 79%
- Wheat- 48%
- Corn- 45%
5 steps of Protein metabolism.
- 1. Protein converted to Amino acids
- 2. Amino acids are utilized
- 3. Ammonia is released as a by-product of Amino acid usage
- 4. Ammonia is converted into Urea in the liver and then is excreted by the kidneys
- 5. Urea is the nitrogen end product of protein metabolism
Name the 4 types of Carbs.
- 1. Simple Sugars
- 2. Complex Sugars
- 3. Trisaccharides
- 4. Polysaccharides
Where does Digestion of carbs occur?
in the mouth by the enzyme salivary amylase. The primary site of digestion occurs in the intestine
What are most carbs in pet rations absorbed as? What is converted into that?
Glucose; Galactose and fructose are converted into glucose.
What is Diabetes Mellitus? Symptoms? Most commonly seen in? types of breeds?
deficiency in insulin production of the pancreas; Hyperglycemia, Glucosuria, Ketonemia, polyuria, polydipsia; seen in middle aged, obese, female dogs; hereditary; Schnauzer, Cocker, Poodles
What is Gluconeogenesis?
When blood glucose levels are low, some cells are capable of producing glucose from substrates other than carbohydrates. The liver cells use fats or proteins to synthesize new glucose for the blood.
Name the 4 Fiber Constituents.
- 1. Cellulose
- 2. Hemicellulose
- 3. Pectin
- 4. Lignin
Name 3 benefits of fiber
- 1. Prevention of Constipation
- 2. may reduce caloric intake while giving a full feeling
- 3. may help to reduce the absorption of carcinogens, steroids and other toxic materials
4 functions of Fat
- 1. Supply energy
- 2. Palatability
- 3. Essential Fatty acids
- 4. Carry fat soluble vitamins
3 Essential fatty acids
- 1. Linoleic Acid
- 2. Linolenic Acid
- 3. Arachidonic Acid
What is Pancreatitis?
If digestive enzymes become activated within the pancreas and are not released they will begin digesting the pancreas itself which will cause severe inflammation.
Symptoms of pancreatitis?
- -Abdominal pain
- -elevated pancreatic enzymes
- - Diarrhea
Causes of Pancreatitis
- 1. Hyperlipemia
- 2. Obesity
- 3. Infectious Disease
- 4. Trauma
What does ASH contain?
- - Calcium
- - Phosphorus
- - Salt
- - Iron
Excessive Ash content has been implicated with what disease?
4 functions of Calcium and Phosphorus?
- 1. normal bone development
- 2. provide rigidity for bones and teeth
- 3. aid in blood coagulation
- 4. necessary for nerve excitability
What is NSH?
results in a softening or deformation of bones due to failure of the bone matrix to solidify; occurs in animals who are fed all meat diets during growth stage
What is Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy?
pain and soft tissue swelling usually around the distal radius, ulna and tibia, lameness; Occurs in young, rapidly growing dogs of the large of giant breeds
What is Canine Hip Dysplasia?
Genetic problem manifested by a small acetabulum, a misshapen femoral head; causes lameness and pain in joint;
What is Degenerative Joint Disease?
A disease of pen-fed young bulls characterized by sudden onset of lameness a atrophy of the muscles of the hip and hind limb.
What is Rickets (Osteomalacia)?
Disease of young growing animals caused by a deficiency in phosphorus and Vitamin D; results in bowed appearance of legs; Sometimes associated with NSH as being the same disease
What is Parturient Paresis? What is it called in dogs? in mares?
Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia in cattle following calving; Dogs= Eclampsia; Mares= Lactation Tetany
What is the Parathyroid Hormone produced by? what is it necessary for? What does it Prevent?
Produced by the parathyroid gland; necessary for moving calcium from bone. Prevents having continual bone growth
What is Calcitonin produced by? What does it inhibit?
the thyroid gland; inhibits bone resorption
What does Vitamin D also function as? What does it promote?
a hormone rather than a Vitamin; Promotes intestinal calcium absorption;
Where does Calcium absorption occur?
the Small intestine: mainly duodenum and jejunum
What 4 things effects Magnesium absorption? and where does this occur?
- 1. Calcium
- 2. Phosphorus
- 3. Calcitonin
- 4. Parathyroid hormone
- Occurs in small intestine
What are 5 things Magnesium deficiencies causes in PUPPIES?
- 1. Depression
- 2. Incoordination
- 3. muscular weakness
- 4. Hyperextension of forepaws
- 5. Droopiness of ears and tails
5 things MG deficiencies occur in CATS?
- 1. Muscular Weakness
- 2. Hyperirratibility
- 3. Convulsions
- 4. Reduced Food intake
- 5. Poor growth
What does Excess Mg in cats been associated with?
What is Hypomagnesemia (Grass Tetany, Grass Staggers)?
Occurs in cattle in the spring; MG levels low at top of grass so not as likely to be eaten by cattle. Cow will be ataxic, possible seizures, possible Coma, death. Also occurs in calves who feed a strictly milk diet
What are 3 Fluid Regulators?
- 1. Sodium
- 2. Chloride
- 3. Potassium
What is Sodium?
An essential element of plasma and other extracellular fluids.
What does Sodium aid in?
the transfer of nutrients and the removal of wastes from the cells; produces bile
Excess Sodium is excreted by what?
What is Chloride needed for? Where is it excreted?
the formation of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices which is used to digest protein; Excreted in the Urin
Causes of NaCl deficiency?
Prolonged and severe diarrhea, vomiting and adrenal cortical insufficiency
Signs of NaCl?
fatigue, exhaustion, inability to maintain water balance, decreased water intake, retarded growth, dryness of skin and loss of hair
What can Sodium Chloride excess also occur with?
signs of water deprivation?
Thirst, pruritis, constipation, anorexia, seizures and death
What is Potassium needed for? Where is it absorbed?
proper enzyme, muscle, nerve function, fluid balance and appetite; Small and Large intestine
5 signs of Potassium deficiency?
- 1. Poor Growth
- 2. Restlessness
- 3. Muscular Paralysis
- 4. Dehydration
- 5. lesions in the Heart and Kidney
4 causes of Potassium Deficiency?
- 1. Chronic diarrhea
- 2. vomiting
- 3. starvation
- 4. Diabetes Mellitus
Iron combined with a large ___ molecule makes _______, which the iron containing compound in red blood cells.
What is Iron needed for?
in transporting oxygen and for enzymes in energy utilization
Where is Iron absorbed? when does it occur?
small intestine; appears in RBCs in about 4 hrs after ingestion
WHat is the largest Utilization of Iron
Hemopoiesis- the formation of RBCs
Symptoms of Anemia?
reduced appetite, diarrhea, rough hair coat, increases suseptability to disease.
3 causes of anemia
hereditary, pathological or nutritional origins
What is Aplastic Anemia?
bone marrow fails to produce essential blood elements.
What is Hemolytic Anemia?
caused by shortened life span of RBC and the bone marrows inability to compensate for the decreased life span
What is Hypochromic Anemia
reduction in hemoglobin and increased area of central palor in the RBC
What is Hypoplastic Anemia?
Varying degrees of erythrocyte under development
What is Parasitic Anemia?
Due to the absence of RBC due to parasite ingestion
What is PCV or Microhematocrit Anemia?
Most species 37%-45%
4 signs of zinc deficiency?
- 1. Hypogonadism
- 2. Skeletal Deformities
- 3. Corneal Lesions
- 4. Impaired immune responses
what is Manganese essential for?
normal reproduction; glucose utilization and be involved in the production of insulin; involved in production of prothrombin, one of the blood clotting factors
storage sites for Copper
liver, kidney, brain
Copper absorption occurs in?
the stomach and upper small intestine
Copper deficiency breed?
Copper deficiency in ruminants may cause what?
Anemia and central nervous system disorder. Also Enzootic ataxia, swayback, falling disease
Selenium is associated with what Vitamin?
What 3 animals is selenium def. common in?
Calves, lambs, foals
2 Selenium Deficiency diseases?
White Muscle Disease or Enzootic Muscular Dystrophy
2 Selenium def diseases in pigs
- 1. Mulberry heart Disease
- 2. Hepatosis Dietetica
2 sources of selenium
Wheat and Soy
What is the main cause for Selenium Toxicity?
Overconsumption, usually by ruminants.
the only known role for Iodine is?
the synthesis of two hormones produced by the thyroid gland.
Iodine deficiency in Cats causes what 4 things?
- 1. Goiter
- 2. alopecia
- 3. abnormal calcium metabolism
- 4. Death
Iodine deficiency in Dogs causes what 5 things?
- 1. Goiter
- 2. Skeletal deformities
- 3. alopecia
- 4. Lethargy
- 5. Timidity
Name the 8 Trace Minerals.
- 1. Cobalt
- 2. Nickel
- 3. Sulphur
- 4. Molybdenum
- 5. Aluminum
- 6. Silicon
- 7. Chromium
- 8. Flourine
Name the 4 Fat Soluble Vits.
A, D, E, K
Major sources of Vit A
What is the yellow pigment in plants?
Beta- Carotene which is a carotenoid
What two things are Vit A involved with?
Vision, cell mitosis
First sign of Vit A def in young animals is?
What is Vitamin A
Vit D functions as a hormone involved in what?
regulation of calcium metabolism
What disease does Vit D def cause?
What does Vit D toxicity cause?
depressed growth; mineralized soft tissues
What is Vitamin D?
What 3 things must Vitamin E be in the presence of to function?
- 1. Polyunsaturated fat
- 2. Selenium
- 3. Sulphur
Where is Vit E found? What do Carnivores find it in?
soybeans and wheat germ oils; liver and adipose tissue
What disease is associated with Vit E def.
Brown Bowel Syndrome
What does Vitamin K help to activate?
2 sources of Vit K
Alfalfa and Spinach
What is Sweet Clover Poisoning?
if freshly cut sweet clover hay is not allowed to dry it will mold and produce Coumarin which will block Vit K in production of prothrombin which will produce prolonged clotting times, hemorrhage or fatal anemias.
how is Coumarin used today?
for rat poisons and in anticoagulation drugs in cardiac patients
What species are vitamin C essential in?
- 2. Primates
- 3. some birds
- 4. guinea pigs
- 5. fish
What disease is associated with Vit C def?
Scurvy- most commonly seen in young rapidly growing dogs
What vit. was originally found to be the preventer of Beriberi?
What causes curled toe paralysis in chickens
deficiency in Riboflavin
What Vit is essential for normal carb metabolism?
What disease is associated with Niacin and called Pallagra in humans?
Pantothenic acid is essential for all animals except the what?
What 3 forms does Vit B6 come in?
- 1. Pyridoxine (most nutritional value)
- 2. Pyridoxal
- 3. Pyrodoxamine
Where is Choline synthesized?
the liver from the amino acids.
What does Choline cause in chickens?
Perosis or chondodystrophy
What does Bracken Fern cause? what animals are effected?
ruminants have Enzootic blood loss through Urine. Lesions in the bladder of cows causing the passage of blood stained urine. blood loss could cause fatal anemia. Horses experience a thiamin deficiency
Sorghum fodder, cyanogenic properties; everywhere in Texas
What is Pokeberry also called? What does it cause?
Pokeweed; causes enteritis, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, digestive upset, prickly unpalatable
- Horses= blindness
- Others= Gastroenteritis, weakness and diarrhea
- Toxic to all species
causes hepatitis in cattle with depression, severe jaundice and photosensitization. Could effect liver
leaves and branches are very poisonous. Pupil Dilation, Tremors, excitement, convulsions, ventricular Fibrilation, Tachycardia
tree . Also is called Bagpool, coffeebean, and rattlebox. Causes GI upset
is the same as Bladderpod except it is a small bush. GI Upset
Standing crop is safe but hay made from crop spoils easily and affects the clotting ability. Prolonged clotting time, spontaneous hemorrhage, fetal anemia
Seed of the the berry causes severe diarrhea, may also cause excitement and dyspnea. Not Native to America; Neurological
seeds contain a potent toxin which causes a nephritis and fatal hepatits. Poisoning occurs from eating the young seedlings. Vomiting, dyspnea, recumbency, convulsions
wherever contact is made it can react. berries cause acute and chronic poisoning characterized by inflammation of mouth, esoph, and intestines. Aka: Bullnettle
Also called castor oil plant. Diarrhea and convulsions
Tremors, dyspnea, paralysis, recumbency, can be fatal. Toxin can be passed through the milk of cows and poison the person who drinks it
Severe Contact Dermatits "Leaves of Three, Let it be"
Bulbs and leaves piosonous. Cattle, horses, poultry may stagger, have diarrhea, collapse and death
Contains a copious white sap. Diarrhea, incoordination, convulsions in cattle. GI, Neurological
Causes acute indigestion; Heart burn
St Johns Wort
causes dermatitis. Aka Klamath weed or goatweed
May cause Glaucoma in man. In chickens causes low egg produc, edema, ataxia, comb cyanosis and Gastroenteritis
Dermatits, conjunctivitis and diarrhea in cattle. May be the cause of "Pyrexia-Pruritis-hemorrhage" syndrome in dairy cattle. Dermatitis, fever and mucosal petechiation