Acland Anatomy (Support and Movement of the Head)
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What are the bones involved in the Movement and Support of the head?
- Thoracic (Dorsal) and Cervical Vertebrae
- Upper Ribs
The skull is divided into 2 parts:
- Cranium (Bony container for the brain, made up of separate bones all joined by Sutures)
- Facial Skeleton - Viscerocranium
The bones that make up the Cranium
- Occipital Bone
- Parietal Bones (Pair)
- Temporal Bone (Pair)
- Sphenoid Bone
- Frontal Bone
Large opening through which spinal chord and accompanying structures pass in the Occipital bones.
Part of the Occipital bone in front of the Foramen Magnum:
Basilar part of Occipital Bone or Base of the Occiput
On each half of the Anterior half of the Foramen Magnum are the:
2 Occipital Condyles
The 2 Occipital Condyles articulate with the _________ _______ to form the _____-______ _________.
- Atlas Vertabrae
- Atlanto-Occipital Joints (there are 2)
Part of the Occipital bone that is Posterior to the Foramen Magnum:
Squamous part of the Occipital bone (where most of the neck muscles insert)
Lump in the middle of the Occipital Bone
External Occipital Protuberance
Ridges from the External Occipital Protuberance that lead to the mastoid process
- Superior Nuchal Line
- Inferior Nuchal Line
The temporal bone has 2 main parts:
- Petrous Part of Temporal Bone
- Squamous Part of the Temporal Bone
Arch that is formed by the temporal and Zycomatic bone
The facial nerve exits the temporal bone through:
Medial to the styloid process we find these 2 major openings for blood vessels?
- Carotid canal
- Jugular foramen
Just above the occipital condyle we find which opening that carries which nerve
- Hypoglossal canal
- Hypoglossal nerve XII
Behind the jugular foramen we find the ________ ________, the main venous drainage channel for the brain. Below and medial the Jugular foramen we find the _________ ______ and above it the _______ ______ ________, in which these structures pass
- Sigmoid sinus
- Hypoglossal canal
- internal auditory meatus
- VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR AND FACIAL NERVES
The _______ part for the temporal bone contains the structures of the inner and middle ear.
The petrous part
The carotid canal ends at the:
Rotation of the head happens at which articulation?
The pivot at which the head and neck rotate which is found on the axis and not the atlantis, is the:
The upper part of the sternum at which the first 2 ribs articulate is called
The manubrium, the first ribs and body of the first thoracic vertebrae form the _______ ______ ______, place in which many important structures pass.
Superior thoracic aperture
There are ______ disks between the first two cervical vertebrae
NO, only synovial joints (which permit lots of movement)
This ligament extends from the spinous process of T1 to the external occipital protuberance
Nuchal Ligament (ligementum nuchae), limits forward flexion and attachment for muscles
Broad band that connects all fronts of vertebral bodies and ends at tubercle at the arch of the atlas
Anterior longitudinal licgament
Tectorial membrane is the most superior part of the ligament that attaches to the base of the occiput down the back of all vertebral bodies and runs down the spine.
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Beneath the tectorial membrane is this ligament that prevents the odontoid process from displacing posteriorly.
transverse ligament of the atlas
This ligaments that run from the transverse ligament to the base of the occiput and to the base of the axis, that in conjunction with the transverse ligament form the.
- Superior band
- Inferior band
- cruciform ligament
These ligaments go from the odontoid process to the inside of the occipital condyles, they limit rotation of the head
The 2 oblique muscles and 2 rectus muscles are considered the:
The Rectus Capitus muscles go from:
- Minor: middle of the posterior part of the atlas to the occiput
- Major: Spinous process of the atlas to the occiput
The Oblique Capitus muscles go from (what is their action):
- Inferior: spine of the axis vertebrae to the transverse process of the atlas
- Superior: transverse process of the atlas to the occiput
- Extension and rotation
Scalenes muscles, which ones are they, where do they insert and their function?
- Anterior, middle and posterior scalene
- They insert on the last 5 transverse processes of the last 5 vertebrae (anterior on anterior tubercules, middle and posterior scalene on posterior tubercules. Insert on first and 2 ribs inferiorly.
- Elevate upper ribs in deep inspiration
Semispinalis muscle arises from, action?
- Articular process of c4-c7 and transverse process of T1-T6
- Extend the head and prevents gravity from flexing the head downward
Splenius muscle, inserts where?
Spinus process of T3 to C-7 and lower half of nuchal ligament. Nuchal line to back of mastoid process.
Trapezious arises from...
Middle of superior nuchal line and nuchal ligament to T-12. Inserts on the spine of the scapula, acrimion and clavicle.
Sternocleidomastoid muscle runs from (action):
- Mastoid process of the temporal bone to the Minubrium of the sternum and medial part of the clavicle
- One sternocleidomastoid contracts and moves the head in the rotational opposite direction, both contract and head moves downward. Also prevent from gravity pulling head all the way back.
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