history test

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history test
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2013-04-30 20:13:51
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world civ 2
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  1. The enlightenment movement was a broad international
    movement with many of its leading thinkers being French
    Age of Reasoning
  2. The enlightenment Thinkers as collectively known as the
    Philosophies (French world meaning philosopher)
  3. They believed that people thought their reason could be used
    to revel the natural laws that regulated human affairs
    Philosophers
  4. Once the natural laws were discovered the institution of
    society could be reformed to bring them more in accordance with the natural
    order
    Philosopher
  5. In addition to their emphasis on rationalism the _ believed
    that human beings were basically good but had been corrupt by society
    Philosopher
  6. Wrote progress of the human mind
    Marquis de Condorcet
  7. The two works published in 1690 _ provided England’s
    glorious revolution of 1688 which resulted in the overflow of king James 11
    John Locke
  8. Essay concerning human understanding he advanced the theory
    of tabula rose where he believed at birth every human’s mind is a blank page
    and all knowledge comes from experience
    John Locke
  9. In his treatise of tolerance Voltaire urged for the
    overturning of jean Calais a French Huguenot who allegedly murdered his son in
    order to prevent his conversion to Catholicism conviction was reversed in 1765
    Deists
  10. Emile(1762) contains _ideas on education, emile has two
    heroes, _, the teacher, and emile , his pupil emile learns from direct
    experience rather than books
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  11. “all men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains”
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  12. “It was the idea that although gov’t restricted individual
    freedom, it was nevertheless a necessary evil, there would be less evil if
    gov’t and individual liberty could be reconciled”
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  13. He did not favor Democracy he believed that sovereignty
    resides with all people
    Rousseau
  14. Believed there was no single idea political system
    Baron de Montesquieu
  15. “Different systems were appropriate for different people,
    depending on the size of the area to be governed, its population, its economic
    system, and its social and religious traditions”
    Boron De Montesquieu
  16. Sets forth the concept of the separation of powers between
    the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the gov’t
    Spirit of the laws
  17. His ideas influenced writers of the constitution as well as
    the French constitution of 1791
    Spirit of the laws
  18. Enlightenment economic thought was basically laissez faire,
    laissez passer it was the belief that the economy would be left free to
    regulate itself by its own natural laws
    Spirit of the Laws
  19. They repudiated mercantilism which was the prevailing
    doctrine and instead emphasized state regulation of economic activity
    Spirit of the laws
  20. Is one who advocated the doctrine of “Laissez-faire”Quesnay
    was the leading physicocrat was biologist and physician to king Louis xv and
    his mistress Madame de pompadour
    Physiocrat
  21. Stressed that land was the only source of wealth and that
    trade should be free of control he state should establish only one tax and it
    should be derived from land
    Quesnay
  22. Scottish economist
    Adam Smith
  23. 18th century’s most influential advocate of
    laissez-faire economics
    Adam Smith
  24. Wrote the Wealth of Nations(1776)in it he stressed that a
    nation’s wealth was based on its production of goods by its farmers, artisans,
    and factory workers
    Adam Smith
  25. “The state should content itself with being a passive
    policemen”
    Adam Smith
  26. Italian aristocrat
    Cesare Beccaria
  27. Advanced his proposals for bringing law and justice into
    conformity with rational law of nature
    Cesare Beccaria
  28. Barvarous punishment failed to deter crimes: the certainty
    of punishment was a far more effective deterrent than its severity
    Cesare Beccaria
  29. He believed further that justice should be swift and that
    punishment should focus on the rehabilitation of the criminal
    Cesare Beccaria
  30. Virtually all the important French philosophers, including
    Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu, were among the some 160 contrivutors to
    the
    Encyclopedia
  31. Encyclopedia was edited by
    Denis Dederot and Jean le Rond d’ Alembert
  32. The Encyclopedia was both a compilation of knowledge and?
    A means for the spreading of the philosopher’s radical ideason gov’t economics, religion, philosophy, and other subjects
  33. The first 20 volumes of the Encyclopedia were published
    between? 5 additional volumes appeared in
    1751 and 1722 and 1776-1777
  34. Humanity must always be striving to improve or make progress
    The Enlightenment ideas
  35. Knowledge was thought of as a “Cleanser” that could wash
    away people’s supersititions which were caused by ignorance
    The enlightenment ideas
  36. In order to improve, humanity must have a sense of the
    environment surrounding them and the ability to be able to manipulate that
    environment
    The enlightenment ideas
  37. Believed in a creator that made the universe and created all
    the rules of nature who then stepped back from human affairs and let the
    earth/universe run itself
    Deism
  38. View of the universe as a clock with all its components
    being the rules of nature, and God or the creator as the clockmaker
    Deism
  39. Teach to question authority no matter what the cost
    Deism
  40. Believed that a just society depends on tolerance and that
    humanity could not make any progress without it
    Tolerance
  41. Believed that tolerance would lessen the impact of religion
    on people’s lives
    Tolerance
  42. Born in France in 1712
    Jean Jacques Rousseau
  43. Ran away from home occupied many positions making a name for
    himself in 1754 when he wrote an essay contest called the discourse on
    inequality
    Jean Jacques Rousseau
  44. It outlined his famous theories which include the social
    contract between the governed and the authority and the idea of the noble
    savage
    Jean Jacques Rousseau
  45. The idea of the _ _ is at the heart of Rousseau’s ideas
    about how government should be run
    Social Contract
  46. Saw government at the time as a tool that was used to make
    individuals give up their right and the authority
    Social contract
  47. Believed that upper classes had tricked society into
    thinking that they were above everyone else and so installed inequality
    permanently in our society
    Social Contract
  48. The only way to improve society was in giving individuals
    their rights back riding society of inequality and reforming it
    Social Contract
  49. Government should not be a dictatorship rather a tool used
    to protect individuals rights
    Social Contract
  50. Man is born free but everywhere is in chains
    Social Contract
  51. If the authority does not fulfill its side of the contract
    The governed would have full rights to rebel and oust the authority from its
    position of power
    Social Contract

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