POLY SCI Authors

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  1. Morgenthau
    Classical Realist
  2. Mearsheimer
    Neo Realist
  3. Waltz
    Neo Realist
  4. Wohlforth
  5. Grieco
  6. Doyle
  7. Paris
    Classical Liberal
  8. Wendt
  9. Barber
    Constructivist with more optimism than Huntington
  10. Huntington
  11. Mansfield and Snyder
  12. Kaufmann
  13. Neorealist
    • more scientific and systematic approach focused on anarchy
    • includes the goal of theory building systems
    • states are the main actors in international politics (all states are rational)
  14. Classical Realist
    • Oldest intellectual tradition
    • Human nature is immutable, not capable or susceptible to change
    • Human nature causes people to want to dominate over the weaker
  15. Morgenthau
    • human nature
    • rationality, objective
    • emphasis on power
    • minimize risk, maximize benefits
    • moral disgust shouldn't guide actions
    • balanced power, alliance, power system
  16. Mearsheimer
    • structural anarchy
    • self-help, distribution of power
    • bipolarity is better, brings peace
    • power is the fault for war
    • coordination and resources are controlled by the state
    • states are rational, equality of nuclear power
    • importance of power by spreading and threatening democracy
  17. ¨
    “The wars before 1945 each had their particular
    and unique causes, but the distribution of power in Europe--its multipolarity
    and the imbalances of power that often occurred among the major states in that
    multipolar system--was the crucial permissive condition that allowed these
    particular causes to operate.”
  18. ¨
    “The peacefulness of the postwar era arose for
    three principal reasons: the bipolarity of the distribution of power on the
    Continent, the rough equality in military power between those two polar states,
    and the appearance of nuclear weapons, which vastly expanded the violence of
    war, making deterrence far more robust”
  19. ¨
    “Conflict is common among states because the
    international system creates powerful incentives for aggressive.  The root cause of the problem is the anarchic
    nature of the international system.  In
    anarchy there is no higher body or sovereign that protects states from one
    another.  Hence each state living under
    anarchy faces the ever-present possibility that another state will see force to
    harm or conquer it.  Offensive military
    action is always a threat to all states in the system.”
  20. Waltz
    • unipolar
    • structure of the system (levels of quality)
    • self-help, anarchy, power balance
    • distribution of capabilities - distinguish factors in the international system
    • bipolar systems are more stable
    • no war
    • no hegemony, distribution of capabilities
  21. Waltz
    • if there is anarchy, peace can't exist
    • bipolarity is more flexible and less likely to result in war
  22. Wohlforth
    • power argument
    • challenges to the US
    • CW caused fear in the West, because of USSR power
    • Hegemons tried to avoid war
    • soviets decide to no longer participate because they lost power
  23. ¨    
    “The Cold War was caused by the rise of Soviet power
    & the fear this caused in the West. 
    The end of the CW was caused by the relative decline of Soviet power
    & the reassurance this gave the West”
  24. Grieco
    • Neoliberals assume that states only have one
    • goal in mixed-interest interactions to achieve the greatest possible individual
    • gain to achieve the highest possible score

    • “Rational egoism” – states only care about their
    • own gains, states possess consistent preferences to weigh the costs and
    • benefits as a utility function

    • The worst case scenario is that states have to
    • defect to find themselves less well off than if they would have cooperated
  25. Grieco
    • Realists believe that international anarchy is
    • the absence of a common inter-state government (states have no overarching
    • authority to prevent others from using violence to threaten them)

    • States are the cause for relative gains problems
    • within cooperation, states concentrate on the danger that their partners might
    • gain advantages and cause more of a danger

    • States define balance and equity as
    • distributions of gains that roughly maintain cooperation and balances
    • capabilities

    Many uncertainties in cooperation
  26. Doyle
    • Peace, Capitalism, Individualism (domestic institutions)
    • How rulers are connected to the ruled
    • Determine the politics of state and international organizations
    • Democratic Peace
    • Competition makes everyone better
    • Liberal states are only peaceful
    • Liberal states can create peace, but that democracies may also choose war if there is an uprise
    • Liberal states won’t fight each other in an up rise, but they look for reasons to fight authoritarian countries
    • Separate democratic peace has been created by the reform of Global politics
  27. Paris
    • Contemporary liberals think that markets and elections will solve all the problem (WRONG)
    • States need to provide security for their citizens needs and fears
    • “Good institutions” are the only hope
    • shared with Kaufman – world community dealing with problems
    • Solutions – markets and elections will not fix anything, UNDERSTAND CLASSICAL LIBERALISM – provide protection from violence (overcome the state of nature)
    • Create a state that functions, police force that does its job, international system has no authority – what is the authority Construct security institutions – police, military, government that can be trusted
  28. Wendt
    • structures are not simply material, also social (Shared knowledge, past practices and interactions)
    • Friendship and “enemy-hood”
    •  “material capabilities as such explain nothing”  “shared knowledge”
    • “past practices”
    • power isn’t the only thing that matters – power is interpreted
    • Actors do not identify negatively with one another
    • More terms than needing to win Positive relations with the US
    • Conflictual relations with the US (Changing old ideas of self)
    • Work together to mutually benefit
    • Social theories of relationships between actors
  29. Wendt
    • Theory building project, structures are not simply tangible elements (they are comprised of shared knowledge, practice, past behaviors, and interactions)
    • Material components (power, wealth)
    • Social elements (embedded in relationships – what states know about each other and how they act together)

    COOPERATION: “A constructivist analysis of cooperation, in contrast, would concentrate on how the expectations produced by behavior affect identities and interests. The process of creating institutions ins one of internalizing new understandings of self and other, of acquiring new role identities, not just of creating external constrains on the behavior of exogenously constituted actors.”
  30. Barber
    • Globalization has two forces, optimist mcworld (negative to both)
    • Coming together and influencing each other
    • Jihad – holy war, idea to keep what is unique to us without associating with others
    • Twin processes in globalization
    • Political theorist interested in the nature of political systems
    • He responds to more of the excitement and optimism of globalization and the end of the Cold War
    •  He believes all states will be democracies
  31. ¨
    “The tendencies of … Jihad and …McWorld operate
    with equal strength in opposite directions, the one driven by parochial
    hatreds, the other by universalizing markets, the one recreating ancient
    subnational and ethnic borders from within, the other making national borders
    porous from without.”
  32. Harrington
    clash of civilizations, multipolarity, democratization different from democracy

    The expression of a fundamental civilizational difference that erupted out of religious values
  33. ¨
    “World politics is entering a new phase, and
    intellectuals have not hesitated to proliferate visions of what it will be like
    – the end of history, the return of traditional rivalries between nation
    states, and the decline of the nation state from the conflicting pulls of
    tribalism and globalism among others.”
  34. ¨
    Conflict between civilizations will be the
    latest phase in the evolution of conflict in the modern world.”

    “The fault lines between civilizations are
    replacing the political and ideological boundaries of the Cold War as the flash
    points for crisis and bloodshed.”
  35. Mansfield and Snyder
    • real democracy  - or an in between, states are
    • in transition and have no achieved democracy
    • actions are often more violent, use foreign policy to unite the largest population at
    • the result of the small groups

    • skeptical
    • that states will be peaceful
    • institution

    argue against Doyle
  36. ¨
    The early stages of democratization unleash
    intense competition among myriad social groups and interests.  Many transitional democracies lack state
    institutions that are sufficiently strong and coherent to effectively regulate
    the mass political competition….The
    weaker these institutions, the greater the likelihood that war-provoking
    nationalism will emerge in democratizing countries.”
    Mansfield and Snyder
  37. Kaufmann
    Living in anarchy, instill fear to prevent conflict

    • Argues against policy – work together, power sharing for the
    • state  (CRAZY TALK)

    Too much fighting is occurring, deep hatred (human nature)

    International wars – identity conflicts

    Power is the way to deal with the conflicts – desire  to dominate

    Separate the two conflicting powers, then balance the two

    Break up the state

    • World intervention to separate or let them ethnically
    • cleanse themselves
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POLY SCI Authors
2013-05-01 04:08:54
International Politics

Intro to International Politics
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