ashleys Final bio 101 test

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jmiller2405
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ashleys Final bio 101 test
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2013-05-01 13:40:55
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bio 101 ashley
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The final for ashley bio 101
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  1. Major contributors
    • Aristotle: scale of nature
    • Ray: classification system, established "species concept"
    • Linnaeus: binomial nomenclature
    • Cuvier: catasteralism
    • Lamarck: inheritance of acquired triat
    • Lyell: uniformintarionism
    • Hutton: gradualism
    • Wallace: wrote what darwen was writing in his unpoblished manuscrips
    • Darwin: Evelution
  2. logic of Darwin
    • rich diversity of life
    • the simularities that allow the classification of organism into groups nested with broader groups
    • the striking ways in which organisms are suited to their environments
    • "decent with modification" what he called evelution
    • Obs 1 growth potetial; obs 2 population stability; obs 3 limited resources; obs 4 population variability; obs 5 variation is hearitable: inferance 1 differential reproduction; inferance 2 faverable caracteristics
  3. evidence examined in current studies on evolutionary biology
    • mendelian genetics, molecular genetics
    • fossil records, biogeography, comparitive anatomy, comparitive embroyology, molecular biology
  4. original source of genetic variation
    mutations
  5. unit of evolution
    • change of alleles in population over time
    • a single person does not evalve populations evalve
  6. mechanism of natural selection
    • offspring is the monie of genes
    • differential reproduction
  7. types of natural selection
    • directional: moves one way or another
    • distirbutive: the average phenotype it dwindeld down
    • stabilizing: where mean increaces
  8. artificial selection
    where man interveans and causes things to merge that should not
  9. examples of “quick” evolution
    bottel neck affect alot of the animals that dont have a serten traite die off
  10. resistance
    • herbicide, pesticide, antibiotic 
    • there are sertin things that will become amune to them
  11. survival of fittest
    not always the biggist or toughest but whatever one perduces the most offspring
  12. measure of evolutionary fitness
    assing genes to offspring via differential reproduction
  13. Ecology
    the study of the factors affecting the distribution and aboundance of organisms
  14. ecosystem structure & function
    • abiotic facters: natural things that happen in nature; fires
    • Biotic facters: prediter pray interactions; herbavors carnavors and parasites
  15. Ecological organization:
    individuals>population>community>ecosystem>biosphere
  16. trophic interactions
    • producers: plants; consumers: animals
    • autotrophs & heterotrophs: plants & plant eaters
    • photosynthesis & chemosynthesis: use light to make energy; use chemical to make energy
    • herbivores: plant eaters
    • carnivores: eats animals
    • omnivores: eats plants and animals
    • decomposers: live off dead material
    • food chains vs food webs: food chain; gras>herbavore> carnivore, food web; plants> primary consumer > secondary consumer> tertyary consumer> quatrinary consumer
  17. Ecological processes
    • trophic pyramids: plants at bottom
    • energy: it only has a ten percent accuracy of conversion
    • biomass: whaight of everything
    • numbers: the higher the pyrimind the less there are
    • energy flow: goes up though the pyrimid or food chain with 10 percent accuracy
    • nutrient cycling: nutreants get cyled thought
    • laws of thermodynamics: you cant create energy on earth, no energy is 100% accurate
    • trophic efficiency: there is no better way to clean the air than this 
    • biogeochemical cycles: water & carbon
    • global warming: gasses that have broken down our ozone layer
    • biological magnification: where something is getting greater the higher up it goes in the food chain
  18. mutualism
    • both partners benefit form the interaction
    • lichen; coral reefs; Zooxanthellae; mangrove jellyfish; giant coral clam; termites & trichonympha; Yucca & white moth
  19. commensalisms
    • where the relationship has no affect on the host but benefits the parastie
    • whales/scallops & barnacles; sharks & remora; clownfish & anemone; cattle egret & grazing mammal; Pseudoscorpian & cranfly; Donkey dung sea cucumber & pearlfish
  20. parasitism
    • has negative affect on the host but benefits the parasite
    • hornworm & wasp; humans & plasmodium (bacteria that causes Malaria); humans/animals & mosquitoes; humans & trypanosoma fly (African sleeping sickness); dog heartworms
  21. obligate vs facultative
    • Obligative: restricted to a particular condition of life, as certain organisms that can survive only in the absence of oxygen: obligate anaerobe
    • Facultative: having the capacity to live under more than one specific set of environmental conditions, as a plant that can lead either a parasitic or a nonparasitic life or a bacterium that can live with or without air
  22. examples of symbioses
    living together (in close ecological association) of two dissimilar organisms.
  23. host
    what the parasite lives off of that can live without the parasite
  24. parasite
    • needs a host to live off of
    • lichens (most plants and rocks but they can not be removed without dammige), zooxanthellae (most coral reefs have them), termite, ciliates (bacteria), cucumber (they recycle dead matter), pearlfish (live inside clams and other small sea animals that are invertibrea), malaria (that is transphered by maskeetos), African Sleeping Sickness (testes fly),  heartworm
  25. phoresy
    interaction of organism to gain transport
  26. abiotic vs biotic factors affecting caves
    • Abiotic: acidic water dripping down over time, rivers of water
    • Biotic: decompsers and chemosynthesis, critters in the cave
  27. cave zonation
    • entrance: can be big or small
    • twilight: not enof light for plants to grow
    • complete darkness: no light at all gets here
    • constant temperature: same temperature all year round
  28. cave organisms
    • accidentals: will die if they cant find there way back out
    • troglophiles: cave dweling or not 
    • trogloxenes: found there but need to leave
    • troglobites: dwells cave thoughout life
  29. cave nutrients-limiting
    cave nutrients are limited based on decompostion and chemical living plants mast cave dwellers are blind
  30. decomposition
    plants like fungi do this instad of photosythisis
  31. communities
    mostly small creatures because nutreants are limited

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