BIOL 404-Exam 4-Muscle 8

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kyleannkelsey
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216931
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BIOL 404-Exam 4-Muscle 8
Updated:
2013-05-01 01:17:49
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BIOL 404 Exam Muscle
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BIOL 404-Exam 4-Muscle 8
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  1. What does is the totoal tension?
    • The amount of tension developed by each fiber
    • The number of fibers contracting at once
  2. What does is the total tension?
    • The amount of tension developed by each fiber
    • The number of fibers contracting at once
  3. What does the nervous system control to manage the whole muscle tension and shortening velocity?
    • The tension in each fiber
    • The number of fibers contracting
  4. What are the factors for tension developing in a fiber?
    • Action potential frequency
    • Fiber length
    • Fiber diameter
    • Fatigue
  5. What are the factors that affect shortening velocity?
    • The load
    • Type of motor units
    • number of motor units recruited
  6. The load, the number of motor units recruited and the type of motor units all effect what?
    The Shortening velocity
  7. An increase in the amount of contractile activity (exercise) leads to what?
    An increase in the muscle size and capacity for ATP production
  8. What can increase a muscle's size and capacity for ATP production?
    Increased contractile activity
  9. What are the two types of atrophy?
    • Disuse atrophy
    • Denervation atrophy
  10. What type of atrophy occurs due to loss of function via nerve damage?
    Denervation atrophy
  11. What is flexion?
    Brining in the lateral body proximal
  12. What is extension?
    Bringing a proximal body peripherally
  13. Many skeletal muscle diseases are caused by what?
    Parts of the nervous system that control contraction
  14. What is poliomyelitis?
    • Viral disease that destroys motor neurons
    • May lead to paralysis and respiratory failure
  15. What viral disease was discussed in class that destroys motor neurons and leads to paralysis and respiratory failure?
    Poliomyelitis
  16. What is a muscle cramp?
    An involuntary tetanic contraction
  17. What is the term for an involuntary tetanic contraction?
    Muscle Cramp
  18. During what situation do action potentials fire at a rate much higher than during maximal voluntary contraction?
    Muscle cramps
  19. What are muscle cramps likely due to?
    Electrolyte imbalances in extracellular compartments
  20. Electrolyte imbalances that can cause muscle cramps can develop from what?
    • over exercise
    • dehydration
  21. What is the secondary theory for the cause of muscle cramps?
    Intracellular chemical imbalances stimulate nerves that activate reflex arcs
  22. What is Hypocalcemic tetany?
    • The involuntary tetanic contraction of skeletal muscle
    • Due to Ca <40% of norm
  23. What is the term for tetany due to Ca<40% of its normal levels?
    Hypocalcemic Tetany

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