Chapter 5 The Integumentary System (TB)

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lonelygirl
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216955
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Chapter 5 The Integumentary System (TB)
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2013-05-08 18:45:38
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Biology Anatomy Physiology
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Biology 103A
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  1. Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer. 

    A) Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant. 
    B) Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant. 
    C) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
    D) Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum. 
    C) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. ________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires. 

    A) Porphyria 
    B) Decubitus ulcer 
    C) Impetigo 
    D) Rosacea
    A) Porphyria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order? 

    A) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
    B) granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum 
    C) basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum
    D) basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum 
    A) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________. 

    A) medulla 
    B) cortex 
    C) external root sheath 
    D) cuticle
    C) external root sheath
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Acne is a disorder associated with ________. 

    A) Meibomian glands 
    B) sweat glands 
    C) sebaceous glands 
    D) ceruminous glands
    C) sebaceous glands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The dermis ________. 

    A) has two layers 
    B) is where melanocytes are found
    C) is an avascular connective tissue layer 
    D) lacks sensory corpuscles and glands
    A) has two layers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps? 

    A) levator folliculi 
    B) arrector integument
    C) arrector pili 
    D) arrector folliculi
    C) arrector pili
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged? 

    A) spinosum
    B) lucidum 
    C) granulosum 
    D) basale 
    B) lucidum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure? 

    A) Pacinian corpuscles
    B) Meissner's corpuscles 
    C) Krause's end bulbs
    D) free nerve endings 
    B) Meissner's corpuscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Melanocytes ________.

    A) are spidery-shaped cells in contact with cells in the stratum basale 
    B) are involved with the nervous system 
    C) are involved in the immune system 
    D) work their way up to the surface just like the keratinocytes
    A) are spidery-shaped cells in contact with cells in the stratum basale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does? 

    A) Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.
    B) Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair. 
    C) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
    D) Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair. 
    C) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is correct? 

    A) Apocrine glands are larger than eccrine, and empty secretions directly to the surface of the skin. 
    B) Eccrine are the most numerous, being found primarily in the axillary regions. 
    C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects. 
    D) Mammary glands are not considered a modified sweat gland.
    C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________. 

    A) the dermis providing the major mechanical barrier to chemicals, water, and other external substances 
    B) cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature conditions 
    C) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system 
    D) epidermal blood vessels serving as a blood reservoir
    C) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. The function of the root hair plexus is to ________. 

    A) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
    B) cause apocrine gland secretion into the hair follicle 
    C) serve as a source for new epidermal cells for hair growth after the resting stage has passed 
    D) bind the hair root to the dermis 
    A) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Vernix caseosa is a ________. 

    A) cheesy-looking sudoriferous secretion on the skin of newborns
    B) whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands 
    C) coat of fine, downy hair on the heads of balding men 
    D) substance contributing to acne during adolescence 
    B) whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax. 

    A) mammary
    B) apocrine 
    C) ceruminous 
    D) eccrine 
    C) ceruminous
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________. 

    A) filtration 
    B) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
    C) absorbing materials applied to the surface layer of the skin 
    D) utilizing the products of merocrine glands to nourish the epidermis 
    B) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________. 

    A) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
    B) the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucus
    C) it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shock 
    D) it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shock 
    A) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign agents primarily because it is composed of ________. 

    A) three layers of keratinized cells only 
    B) a tough layer of connective tissue
    C) stratified columnar epithelium 
    D) four different cell shapes found in five distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function 
    D) four different cell shapes found in five distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because ________.
    A) they are able to reproduce sporadically as needed 
    B) they produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties 
    C) they are a powerful defense against damaging UV rays
    D) they are able to transform from living cells to plasma membranes and still function 
    B) they produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________. 

    A) maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granules 
    B) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer 
    C) maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will not denature
    D) provide the melanocyte with a protective shield against abrasion 
    B) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement? 

    A) stratum corneum 
    B) stratum lucidum
    C) stratum basale 
    D) stratum granulosum 
    C) stratum basale
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function? 

    A) Merkel cells
    B) keratinocytes, because they are so versatile 
    C) cells found in the stratum spinosum 
    D) macrophages called Langerhans' cells 
    D) macrophages called Langerhans' cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin? 

    A) The dermis is the thickest portion of the skin and water cannot pass through it. 
    B) The size and shape of the cells that make up the stratum spinosum, as well as the thick bundles of intermediate filaments. 
    C) Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces. 
    D) Fat associated with skin prevents water loss.
    C) Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis? 

    A) monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes
    B) osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cells
    C) goblet cells, parietal cells, and Kupffer cells 
    D) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
    D) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin? 

    A) the papillary layer
    B) the subcutaneous layer 
    C) the hypodermal layer 
    D) the reticular layer 
    D) the reticular layer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn? 

    A) Because the pain is acute due to the large number of Meissner's corpuscles. 
    B) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis. 
    C) The blood vessels in the dermis rupture and the blood passes through the tissue, causing "black and blue marks." 
    D) The stretching causes the tension lines to disappear.
    B) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called: 

    A) hair follicles. 
    B) reticular papillae.
    C) dermal papillae. 
    D) ceruminous glands.
    C) dermal papillae.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges? 

    A) They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person. 
    B) Because we are constantly shedding epithelial cells, these ridges are changing daily. 
    C) Every human being has the same pattern of ridges. 
    D) Identical twins do not have the same pattern of ridges.
    A) They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage? 

    A) The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin's color. 
    B) Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight. 
    C) The skin is protected by increasing the number of Langerhans' cells, which help to activate the immune system. 
    D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
    D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease? 

    A) Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause.
    B) The skin appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint. 
    C) It is impossible to suggest Addison's disease from an inspection of a person's skin.
    D) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance. 
    D) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. A Langerhans' cell is a ________. 

    A) specialized nerve cell 
    B) specialized melanocyte
    C) specialized phagocytic cell 
    D) specialized squamous epithelial cell 
    C) specialized phagocytic cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. The most important factors influencing hair growth are ________. 

    A) age and glandular products 
    B) nutrition and hormones
    C) sex and hormones 
    D) the size and number of hair follicles 
    B) nutrition and hormones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are? 

    A) Fingernails are a separate tissue from the skin, formed from a different embryonic layer.
    B) Fingernails are derived from osseous tissue. 
    C) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis. 
    D) Fingernails are extensions of the carpal bones. 
    C) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands? 

    A) eccrine and apocrine 
    B) sebaceous and merocrine 
    C) mammary and ceruminous 
    D) holocrine and mammary
    A) eccrine and apocrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________. 

    A) primarily uric acid 
    B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C 
    C) metabolic wastes
    D) fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins
    B) 99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body? 

    A) in the axillary and anogenital area 
    B) beneath the flexure lines in the body 
    C) in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
    D) in all body regions and buried deep in the dermis 
    A) in the axillary and anogenital area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________. 

    A) by hormones, especially androgens 
    B) as a protective coating when one is swimming
    C) when the air temperature drops 
    D) by high temperatures 
    A) by hormones, especially androgens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin? 

    A) The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy. 
    B) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism. 
    C) It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.
    D) It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body. 
    B) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss? 

    A) by measuring urinary output and fluid intake 
    B) through blood analysis 
    C) by observing the tissues that are usually moist 
    D) by using the "rule of nines"
    D) by using the "rule of nines"
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn? 

    A) catastrophic fluid loss 
    B) unbearable pain 
    C) infection 
    D) loss of immune function
    A) catastrophic fluid loss
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________. 

    A) weight 
    B) size 
    C) age 
    D) male hormones
    D) male hormones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________. 

    A) they grow much slower 
    B) hormones in the eyebrow follicle switch the growth off after it has reached a predetermined length
    C) the vascular supply of the eyebrow follicle is one-tenth that of the head hair follicle 
    D) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months 
    D) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The apocrine sweat glands are fairly unimportant in thermoregulation. True or False
    True
  45. Skin surface markings that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called epidermal ridges. True or False
    False; papillary
  46. The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis. True or False
    True
  47. The outermost sheath of a hair follicle is the connective tissue root sheath. True or False
    True
  48. The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen. True or False
    False; keratin
  49. Joe just burned himself on a hot pot. A blister forms and the burn is painful. Joe's burn would best be described as a third-degree burn. True or False
    False; second-degree
  50. Destruction of the matrix of the hair bulb would result in its inability to produce oil. True or False
    False; sebaceous (oil) gland
  51. The hyponychium is commonly called the cuticle. True or False
    False; eponychium
  52. The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis. True or False
    False; capillaries underneath
  53. During the resting phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies. True or False
    True
  54. The most dangerous skin cancer is cancer of the melanocytes. True or False
    True
  55. The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin. True or False
    False; 
  56. The dermis is rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers. True or False
    True
  57. The hypodermis is composed of adipose and dense connective tissue. True or False
    False; mostly adipose
  58. A physician is often able to detect homeostatic imbalances in the body by observing changes in the skin color. True or False
    True
  59. When an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the dermal blood vessels will dilate so that blood and heat will be dissipated. True or False
    False; 
  60. Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes. True or False
    True
  61. Ceruminous glands are modified merocrine glands. True or False
    False; apocrine
  62. The stratum corneum (outermost layer of skin) is a zone of approximately four layers of viable cells that are able to synthesize proteins that keep the outer layer of skin smooth and soft. True or False
    False; stratum granulosum
  63. The dermis has a connective tissue and adipose layer that loosely binds the body together. True or False
    False; dense irregular and areolar connective tissue
  64. Incisions should be made across rather than parallel to cleavage lines produced by collagen fiber bundles. True or False
    False; parallel
  65. The pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated hemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting through the epidermis. True or False
    True
  66. Hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle. True or False
    True
  67. When a patient is said to have "third-degree burns," this indicates that the patient has burns that cover approximately one-third of the body. True or False
    False; extends through entire dermis
  68. Sweat glands continuously produce small amounts of sweat, even in cooler temperatures. True or False
    True
  69. Cradle cap in infants is called ________.
    seborrhea
  70. The white crescent portion of the nail is called the ________.
    lunula
  71. The layer of the epidermis immediately under the stratum lucidum in thick skin is the stratum ________.
    granulosum
  72. The ________ are the small muscles located in the dermis that cause goose bumps.
    arrector pili
  73. A summertime golden bronze tan may not be a tan at all; especially if the skin appears almost metallic bronze, it may be the result of ________ disease.
    Addison's
  74. The coarse hair of the eyebrows and scalp is called ________ hair.
    terminal
  75. ________ burns injure the epidermis and the upper regions of the dermis.
    second degree
  76. ________ are pigment-producing cells in the epidermis.
    Melanocytes
  77. The only place you will find stratum ________ is in the skin that covers the palms, fingertips, and soles of the feet.
    lucidium
  78. The dermis is composed of the reticular and ________ layers.
    papillary

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