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  1. Vecuronium, atracurium, tubocuraine
    NMJ blockers (i.e. they block nicotinic ACh receptors). Reversible the whole time, unlike succinylcholine.
  2. Pralidoxime
    For cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning: Used to regenerate cholinesterase. (Use with atropine.)
  3. Echothiophate
    Glaucoma -- anti-cholinesterase
  4. Oxybutynin, glycopyrrolate
    Muscarinic antagonists for GU -- ex. reduce urgency w/cystitis
  5. Methscopolamine, pirenzepine, propantheline
    GI -- for peptic ulcers
  6. Hexamethonium
    Nicotinic antagonist: blocks reflex bradycardia after NE administration (Experimental drug)
  7. Amphetamine & ephedrine vs. cocaine
    Cocaine inhibits catecholamine reuptake, while amphetamines & ephedrine cause release in 1st place
  8. Ritodrine
    B2-agonist for premature labor contractions
  9. Betamethasone
    Glucocorticoid to stimulate surfactant production in premature babies
  10. False aortic aneurysm
    Entire vessel wall ruptures -- post-MI, or at vascular graft anastomosis
  11. Atheroma
    Plaque in blood vessel walls, from hyperlipidemia
  12. In atherosclerosis, what forms the fibrous plaque cap?
    Foam cells recruit smooth muscle cells, via PDGF & FGF-Beta
  13. Enzymes assoc w/plaque rupture vs. stability
    Rupture = MMP's, stability = lysyl oxidase (strengthens collagen fibers of cap)
  14. Ergonovine test
    It induces vasospasm in Prinzmetal's angina pts. These pts will still respond to NG.
  15. Non-ST-elevation MI
    Necrosis did occur, but only a partially occlusive thrombus
  16. Medications that slow HF progress
    Captopril (ACE inhibitor), & B-blockers inhibit ventricular remodeling
  17. Red infarcts
    In tissues w/collaterals: liver, lung, intestine... or following reperfusion anywhere
  18. ST elevation
    Injury: MI, Prinzmetal's (even though it still responds to NG), aortic dissection, pericarditis (but no CK-MB elevation)
  19. Tangier disease
    Can't load cholesterol onto HDL (ABCA transporter), so macrophages pick it up instead --> foam cells. Orange tonsils
  20. Earliest MI changes
    • Contraction bands -- 1-2 hours (eosinophilic sarcomeres around infarct borders)
    • Coagulative necrosis -- 4 hours (pyknotic nuclei)
  21. 1 day post-MI
    Neutrophil infiltration. Most common cause of death: v.fib. Fibrinous pericarditis overlying the necrotic segment.
  22. Complications 7 weeks post-MI
    Dressler's syndrome, ventricular aneurysm. Inc'd collagen, dec'd cellularity.
  23. Troponin I
    Most specific protein marker for MI. Rises after 4 hours, stays elevated for 10 days.
  24. Endocarditis: Loeffler vs. Libman-Sacks
    • Libman-Sacks: SLE causes LSE. Sterile; usually asymptomatic, but mitral regurg.
    • Loeffler endocarditis: hypereosinophilia --> fibrosis --> restrictive cardiomyopathy
  25. Kerley B lines
    Increased LA pressure (heart fail) --> pulm edema: more fluid in lung interstitium
  26. HAECK organisms
    Culture-neg endocarditis. Haemophilus, actinobacillus, eikenella, cardiobacter, kingella
  27. Syphilis heart disease
    Vasa vasorum of aorta disrupted --> dilation of aorta, calcification of aortic root --> aneurysm, incompetent aortic valve.
  28. Long-QT hereditary syndromes
    • Jervell & Lange-Nielsen: Auto R, neurosensory deafness
    • Romano-Ward: Auto D, no deafness
  29. Microscopic polyangiitis
    • Like Wegener's (nasal/lung/kidney), but lacks granulomas.
    • Type III hypersensitivity, from antibiotic use -- often penicillin
  30. Polyarteritis nodosa
    • Med-sized vessels: kidney, melena, cutaneous, neuro.
    • Young adults, Hep B.
  31. Diazoxide vs. minoxidil
    • Both open K+ channels. Diazoxide = for HTN emergencies, hyperglycemia.
    • Minoxidil = hypertrichosis, pericardial effusion
  32. Thyroid conditions associated with:
    1) Lymphocytic infiltrate w/germinal centers
    2) Granulomas, elevated ESR
    3) Iodinde deprivation, followed by restoration
    • 1) Hashimoto's
    • 2) Subacute thyroiditis
    • 3) T3/4 release --> toxic multinodular goiter (thyrotoxicosis = Jod-Basedow)
  33. Chvostek's & Trousseau's signs
    • Tetany due to hypocalcemia (hypoparathy).
    • Chvostek's = tap on facial nerve --> contract muscles
    • Trousseau's = BP cuff causes carpal spasm (occlude brachial A)
  34. Bromocriptine, cabergoline
    Dopamine agonists -- shrink pituitary adenoma
  35. DM complications that are due to osmotic damage (glucose --> sorbitol --> fructose)
    Cataracts, neuropathy. When you have high glucose, it really accumulates in tissues not dependent upon insulin for glucose uptake!
  36. 2 bugs common in: 1) diabetics & 2) DKA
    • 1) Klebsiella, Pseudomonas
    • 2) Mucor, Rhizopus
  37. Octreotide
    Somatostatin analog for carcinoid syndrome
Card Set
final drug review
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