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What are changes (over time) in the characteristics of a population?
What are some parts to animals that aren't used as much as in earlier generations?
- ostrich wings
- wisdom teeth, tailbone
- snake legs
What was the thought before evolution?
each life form was created at some point in the past and never changed afterward
What was the order that Aristotle placed organisms in called?
"ladder of nature"
What is the belief that all organisms were created simultaneously by God and that each life-form stayed the same from that point?
What are some reasons why there were changes in scientific thought?
- world explanation showed large diversity
- patterns were noticed in wildlife
- species were noted that had very few differences
What was the theory that said a few founder species were created, and all other species branched off of them?
What helped provide evidence for evolution?
discovery of fossils
What is it when a species has no more living members?
What is it when a great number of species were originally created, and catastrophes gradually destroyed some of the species?
What theory helped maintain creationism and the great flood as part of the story?
How was the very old age of the Earth discovered?
by looking at sediment layers--they saw how long they took to form, and they saw how many layers there were
After evolution was accepted, what was the next step?
to determine its cause
What was the theory that said that organisms could pass down improvements made by use or disuse of parts?
Who came up with the idea of natural selection?
- Charles Darwin
- Alfred Wallace
What was Darwin's actual discovery?
he proposed a mechanism for evolution (natural selection)
What are the four postulates on population (1 species in a given area)?
- 1-individual members of a population differ from one another in many ways
- 2-some differences between members of a population may be able to be passed from parent to offspring
- 3-in each generation, some individuals survive and reproduce successfully, others do not
- 4-survival of an individual is not due to luck or chance, but is due to its characteristics
What shows improvements over ancestors?
comparing anatomy over time
What are structures that have the similar appearance, but now have different functions and modifications?
- homologous structures
- limbs of mammals, wings of birds
What are parts on their way out?
- evolutionary baggage
- bat teeth, whale pelvis
What are structures that have similar organs from common ancestry?
- analogous structures
- wings-birds vs insects
What look very similar, but look much different as they grow?
embryos of vertebrates
What is a powerful tool in telling how closely related organisms are?
What are two types forms of evidence of natural selection?
- artificial selection
- evidence seen in experiments
What is it if the same antibiotic is used too frequently, it increases the chances for resistance to develop?