MCAT Gen Chem

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shay29
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216998
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MCAT Gen Chem
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2013-05-02 14:30:04
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MCAT Gen Chem general chemistry
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MCAT Gen Chem Review
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  1. What is a closed system?
    energy can change, mass cannot
  2. Describe Extensive Properties
    A property that changes with the amount of material
  3. Describe Intensive Properties
    A property that does not change with the amount of material
  4. State Functions are...
    pathway independent
  5. Path functions are
    pathway dependent
  6. Conduction
    direct contact, molecules are transferring energy
  7. Convection
    through fluid movement
  8. Radiation
    transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves
  9. Relate pressure, volume and work
    W=PΔV
  10. How to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit
    F = C + 32
  11. First Law of Thermodynamics
    Conservation of energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but in interconverted
  12. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
    When two systems are at thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also at equilibrium with each other
  13. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • Heat cannot be changed completely into work in a cyclical process
    • Entropy will always increase
  14. Third Law of Thermodynamics
    Assigns zero entropy to a pure substance at absolute zero and in internal equilibrium
  15. Enthalpy
    Give equation, describe what positive and negative are
    • the change in heat
    • ΔH = ΔU + PΔV
    • +ΔH = endothermic
    • -ΔH = exothermic
  16. Breaking bonds (releases/uses) energy?
    Uses
  17. Forming bonds (releases/uses) energy?
    releases
  18. Gibbs free energy: 
    give the equation
    What is spontaneous?
    • ΔG = ΔH-TΔS
    • -ΔG = spontaneous
    • +ΔG = nonspontaneous
  19. Colloids
    • solid + liquid or 
    • gas + liquid
    • can be separated by a semi-permeable membrane
  20. lyophilic
    solutes attracted to solvent
  21. lyophobic
    solutes not attracted to solvent
  22. molarity
    M = mol/liter
  23. molality
    m = 
  24. mole fraction
    weird X =
  25. parts per million
    ppm =  X 106
  26. 1 mol of gas = how many liters?
    22.4 L
  27. How many torr is 1 atm?
    760 torr
  28. When forming a solution, ΔS (entropy) always...?
    increases
  29. How do you find the ΔH of the formation of a solution?
    It is equal to the ΔH for all steps
  30. Negative heats of solution form ____ (stronger/weaker) bonds and _____ (higher/lower) vapor pressure
    stronger, lower
  31. Lewis definition of Acid/base
    • Acid =  accepts pair of electrons
    • Base =  donates pair of electrons
  32. Bronsted-Lowry definition of acid/base
    • Acid = donates proton
    • Base = accepts proton
  33. Arrhenius definition of Acid/Base
    • Acid = anything that produces H+ ions in aqueous solution
    • Base = anything that produces OH- ions in solution
  34. With increasing polarity, acidity _______?
    increased polarity =  decreased acidity
  35. Give the expression for Ka
    Ka
  36. What is important about the 1/2 equivalence point?
    there is 50% HA(acid) and 50% A- (conjugate base) 


    and  pH=pKa
  37. What is Raoult's Law?
    Pv = XaPa 

    • Pv = vapor pessure of a solution
    • Xa = mole fraction
    • Pa =  vapor pressure of pure liquid a
  38. Henry's Law demonstrates what?
    that the solubility of the gas is proportional to its vapor partial pressure
  39. Head capacity = ?
    C = q/ΔT
  40. Specific heat of water is?
    1 cal/g°C
  41. What is critical temperature?
    The temp. at which a substance cannot be liquefied no matter how much Pressure is added
  42. Critical Point
    beyond this point, an increase in temperature and/or pressure cause the substance to have both gas and liquid properties
  43. osmotic pressure = ?
    • Π = iMRT
    • Π (pi) =  osmotic pressure
    • i = van't Hoff factor
    • M=  molarity
  44. Van't Hoff Factor
    The number of particles that a given molecule will separate into if put into an aqueous solution
  45. Change in boiling temperature = ?
    ΔT = kbmi

    • Kb =  specific constant for substance being boiled
    • m=molality
    • i= van't hoff factor
  46. With increased bond strength, acidity is _____?
    decreased
  47. A larger pKa means a (stronger/weaker) acid?
    weaker
  48. what is K of water at 25°C?
    Kw = 10-14
  49. What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation?
    pH = pKa+ log 
  50. What happens at the cathode?
    reduction
  51. What happens at the anode?
    oxidation
  52. The substance being oxidized is the...?
    Reducing agent
  53. The substance being reduced is the...?
    Oxidizing agent
  54. What is the oxidation state of oxygen?
    -2
  55. What is the oxidation state of Fluorine?
    -1
  56. What is the oxidation state of Hydrogen?
    +1
  57. A positive cell potential indicates a _______ (+/-) ΔG and a _________ (spontaneous/non-spontaneous) reaction
    negative ΔG, spontaneous
  58. electrolytic cells have ________ (+/-) cell potential
    negative
  59. Galvanic/voltaic cells have a _______ (+/-) cell potential
    positive

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