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What is a closed system?
energy can change, mass cannot
Describe Extensive Properties
A property that changes with the amount of material
Describe Intensive Properties
A property that does not change with the amount of material
State Functions are...
Path functions are
direct contact, molecules are transferring energy
through fluid movement
transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves
Relate pressure, volume and work
How to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit
C + 32
First Law of Thermodynamics
Conservation of energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but in interconverted
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
When two systems are at thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also at equilibrium with each other
Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Heat cannot be changed completely into work in a cyclical process
- Entropy will always increase
Third Law of Thermodynamics
Assigns zero entropy to a pure substance at absolute zero and in internal equilibrium
Give equation, describe what positive and negative are
- the change in heat
- ΔH = ΔU + PΔV
- +ΔH = endothermic
- -ΔH = exothermic
Breaking bonds (releases/uses) energy?
Forming bonds (releases/uses) energy?
Gibbs free energy:
give the equation
What is spontaneous?
- ΔG = ΔH-TΔS
- -ΔG = spontaneous
- +ΔG = nonspontaneous
- solid + liquid or
- gas + liquid
- can be separated by a semi-permeable membrane
solutes attracted to solvent
solutes not attracted to solvent
weird X =
parts per million
1 mol of gas = how many liters?
How many torr is 1 atm?
When forming a solution, ΔS (entropy) always...?
How do you find the ΔH of the formation of a solution?
It is equal to the ΔH for all steps
Negative heats of solution form ____ (stronger/weaker) bonds and _____ (higher/lower) vapor pressure
Lewis definition of Acid/base
- Acid = accepts pair of electrons
- Base = donates pair of electrons
Bronsted-Lowry definition of acid/base
- Acid = donates proton
- Base = accepts proton
Arrhenius definition of Acid/Base
- Acid = anything that produces H+ ions in aqueous solution
- Base = anything that produces OH- ions in solution
With increasing polarity, acidity _______?
increased polarity = decreased acidity
Give the expression for Ka
What is important about the 1/2 equivalence point?
there is 50% HA(acid) and 50% A- (conjugate base)
What is Raoult's Law?
- Pv = vapor pessure of a solution
- Xa = mole fraction
- Pa = vapor pressure of pure liquid a
Henry's Law demonstrates what?
that the solubility of the gas is proportional to its vapor partial pressure
Head capacity = ?
C = q/ΔT
Specific heat of water is?
What is critical temperature?
The temp. at which a substance cannot be liquefied no matter how much Pressure is added
beyond this point, an increase in temperature and/or pressure cause the substance to have both gas and liquid properties
osmotic pressure = ?
- Π = iMRT
- Π (pi) = osmotic pressure
- i = van't Hoff factor
- M= molarity
Van't Hoff Factor
The number of particles that a given molecule will separate into if put into an aqueous solution
Change in boiling temperature = ?
ΔT = kb
- Kb = specific constant for substance being boiled
- i= van't hoff factor
With increased bond strength, acidity is _____?
A larger pKa means a (stronger/weaker) acid?
what is K of water at 25°C?
Kw = 10-14
What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation?
pH = pKa
What happens at the cathode?
What happens at the anode?
The substance being oxidized is the...?
The substance being reduced is the...?
What is the oxidation state of oxygen?
What is the oxidation state of Fluorine?
What is the oxidation state of Hydrogen?
A positive cell potential indicates a _______ (+/-) ΔG and a _________ (spontaneous/non-spontaneous) reaction
negative ΔG, spontaneous
electrolytic cells have ________ (+/-) cell potential
Galvanic/voltaic cells have a _______ (+/-) cell potential