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Name special senses
What are the accessory eye structures?
- Eyelids-shade eyes during sleep, spread eye lubrication over eye ball, protect from excessive light and foreign objects
- Eylashes-protect from border of eyelid and protect eyeballs
- Lacrimal gland-drains lacrimal fluid/tears
- Eyebrows-protect eyeballs from foreign objects and direct sun
- Extrinsic eye muscles-control eye movement
Flow of tears
- Lacrimal Gland
- Superior or inferior canal
- Lacrimal sac
- Nasolacrimal duct
- Nasal Cavity
Describe the structured functions of the eye include tunics
1. Fibrous tunic-dense connective tissue, outside of eye; contains cornea and sclera, for protection and transparent for light
- 2. Vascular Tunic-Supply other layers with blood contains melanin, absorbs light
- Choroid-absorb scattered light waves
- Iris-Ring of smooth muscle control size of pupil
- Cilliary Body- Control change shape of lens (smooth muscle) and (accommodation)
- 3. Nervous Tunic/Retina-(inner tunic) sensory neurons that respond to light
- -Pigmented layer-Epithelial cells(rods and cones) all store pigments from veggies. Light causes nerve impulses
- -Bipolar cells
- -Ganglion cells-group of cell bodies lying outside the CNS
- Optic nerve
- Optic Chiasm
- Optic tract
- Optic radiations
- Primary Visual area of cortex in occipital lobe
What are the Chambers of the eye?
All filled with aqueous humor fluid
- Anterior chamber-
- Posterior Chamber-
- Vitreous Chamber-
What is accommodation, Papillary constriction, and Convergence?
Accommodation- increase in the curvature of the lens for near vision
Papillary Constriction-narrowing of hole where light enters eye, iris muscles contract
Convergence-medial movement of two eyeballs, both are directed to object being viewed. Ex: pencil moving towards eye
What are Optic discs and Fovea centralis?
Optic discs-site where optic nerve exits the eyeball
Fovea centralis-small depression at center of posterior portion of retina at visual axis of eye
What are the major divisions of the ear?
External ear-collects sound waves and channels them inward
Middle ear-conveys sound vibrations to oval window
Internal ear-houses receptors for hearing and equilibrium
What are Olfactory receptors?
First order of neurons of the olfactory pathway, bipolar neurons with exposed dendrites and axon; respond to inhaled chemicals
Explain Olfactory Pathway
- Olfactory nerves
- Olfactory bulbs
- Olfactory tract
- Olfactory cortex
Impulses go to Limbic system
What are tastebuds?
An oval body consisting of three kinds of epithelial cells: supporting cells, gustatory receptor cells and basal cells. Found on tongue called papillae
Supporting cells-surround the gustatory receptor cells
Gustatory receptor cells-
Basal cells-replace receptor cells
Explain Gustatory Pathway
- Gustatory Cortex
What is contained in the Olfactory Epithelium
Smell ties to emotions
Supporting cells-surround olfactory receptors
Olfactory receptor cells-
Basal cells-replace olfactory cells
What are the two main functions of the ear
sound and balance=equilibrium
What is Rhodopsin?
photopigment in rods
What is contained in the Outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear?
- Outer-Pinna/Oracle(cartilage, help direct sound waves into ear), External auditory canal, tympanic membrane(eardrum, vibrate when soundwaves hit it), exocrine glands(make earwax)
- Middle-Malleous, Incus and stape, nasopharynx(auditory tube)
- Inner-Cochlea(auditory receptors), saccule and uticle make up vestibule
What are the difference between rods and cones?
Rods are stimulated by by low light and allow dim vision
Cones are stimulated by right light and produce color vision
Explain the sound waves path
- enter external auditory canal
- vibrations of tympanic membrane
- ossicles vibrate, strike oval window
- setup waves in perilymph
- strike vestibular membrane and scala tympani
- setup waves in endolymph
- vibrate vasilar membrane
- stimulate hair cells on spiral organ
What receptors are involved in hearing and equilibrium(sound and balance)
vestibule(saccule and utricle)
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