Musculoskeletal System Anatomic Position and Terms of Reference

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misd368
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217018
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Musculoskeletal System Anatomic Position and Terms of Reference
Updated:
2013-05-01 12:14:27
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musculo skeletal system medical terminology anatomic position terms reference
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Medical Terminology chapter 4
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  1. anatomic
    anatomical position
    a term of reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions, or directions: the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing forward; the patient is visualized in this position when applying any other term or reference
  2. body planes
    reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts
  3. coronal plane
    frontal plane
    vertical division of the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions
  4. sagittal plane
    vertical division of the body into right and left portions
  5. transverse plane
    horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
  6. anterior (A)
    ventral
    front of the body
  7. posterior (P)
    dorsal
    back of the body
  8. anterior-posterior (AP)
    from front to back, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray
  9. posterior- anterior (PA)
    from back to front, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
  10. superior
    cephalic
    situated above another structure, toward the head
  11. inferior
    caudal
    situated below another structure, away from the head
  12. proximal
    toward the beginning or origin of a structure; for example, the proximal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area closest to where it attaches to the hip
  13. distal
    away from the beginning or origin of a structure; for example, the distal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area at the end of the bone near the knee
  14. medial
    toward the middle (midline)
  15. lateral
    toward the side
  16. axis
    the imaginary line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
  17. erect
    normal standing position
  18. decubitus
    lying down, especially in a bed; lateral decubitus is lying on the side (decubitus = to lie down)
  19. prone
    lying face down and flat
  20. recumbent
    lying down
  21. supine
    horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back ("on the spine")
  22. flexion
    bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
  23. extension
    straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
  24. abduction
    movement away from the body
  25. adduction
    movement toward the body
  26. rotation
    circular movement around an axis
  27. eversion
    turning outward, i.e., of a foot
  28. inversion
    turning inward, i.e., of a foot
  29. supination
    turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) upward or forward
  30. pronation
    turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) downward or backward
  31. dorsiflexion
    bending of the foot or the toes upward
  32. plantar flexion
    bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
  33. range of motion (ROM)
    total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements (i.e., ability to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct); measured in degrees
  34. goniometer
    instrument used to measure joint angles (gonio = angle)

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