Musculoskeletal System Diagnostic Terms

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Musculoskeletal System Diagnostic Terms
2013-05-01 12:51:31
musculo skeletal system medical terminology diagnostic terms

Medical Terminology chapter 4
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  1. ankylosis
    stiff joint condition
  2. arthritis
    inflammation of the joints characterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limitation of motion; there are more than 100 different types of arthritis
  3. osteoarthritis (OA)
    degenerative arthritis
    degenerative joint disease (DJD)
    most common form of arthritis, especially affecting the weight-bearing joints (e.g., knee or hip), characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage
  4. rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    most crippling form of arthritis; characterized by chronic systemic inflammation, most often affecting joints and synovial membranes (especially in the hands and feet) and causing ankylosis and deformity
  5. gouty arthritis
    acute attacks of arthritis, usually in a single joint (especially the great tow), caused by hyperuricemia (an excessive level of uric acid in the blood)
  6. bony necrosis
    bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply, such as can occur after a fracture (sequestrum = something laid aside)
  7. bunion
    swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
  8. bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa
  9. chondromalacia
    softening of cartilage
  10. epiphysitis
    inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the lone bone
  11. fracture (Fx)
    broken or cracked bone
  12. closed fracture
    broken bone with no open wound
  13. open fracture
    compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound
  14. simple fracture
    nondisplaced fracture with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair (e.g., hairline fracture, stress fracture, or a crack)
  15. complex fracture
    displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
  16. fracture line
    the line of the break in a broken bone (e.g., oblique, spiral, or transverse)
  17. comminuted fracture
    broken in many small pieces
  18. greenstick fracture
    bending and incomplete break of a bone; most often seen in children
  19. herniated disk
    protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
  20. myeloma
    bone marrow tumor
  21. myositis
    inflammation of the muscle
  22. myoma
    muscle tumor
  23. leiomyoma
    smooth muscle tumor
  24. leiomyosarcoma
    malignant smooth muscle tumor
  25. rhabdomyoma
    skeletal muscle tumor
  26. rhabdomyosarcoma
    malignant skeletal muscle tumor
  27. muscular dystrophy
    a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles; Duchenne type is most common
  28. osteoma
    bone tumor
  29. osteosarcoma
    type of malignant bone tumor
  30. osteomalacia
    disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
  31. rickets
    osteomalacia in children; causes bone deformity
  32. osteomyelitis
    infection of bone and bone marrow, causing inflammation
  33. osteoporosis
    condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle and to fracture more easily (porosis = passage)
  34. spinal curvatures
    curvatures of the spine (backbone) or spinal column (vertebral column)
  35. kyphosis
    abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humped-back condition)
  36. lordosis
    abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)
  37. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)
  38. spondylolisthesis
    forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra (listhesis = slipping)
  39. spondylosis
    stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae caused by joint degeneration
  40. sprain
    injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture
  41. subluxation
    partial dislocation (luxation = dislocation)
  42. tendinitis
    inflammation of a tendon