Card Set Information
final exam. ap
What are the functions of the Respiratory system?
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and air
sense of smell
eliminated co2 helps the blood pH stay away from being too acidic
What are small openings of the nose that allow air to become surrounded by the body?
What is the hollow chamber within the nose?
Where is the nasal cavity?
between nares and pharynx
What does the nasal cavity contain?
folds and valleys
There is mucous in the nose. What does this help with?
trap particles in the air (filter)
adds moisture to the air (humidify)
What do the folds in the nasal cavity do?
causes the air to spin on its way through. (warms the air)
What contains hairs and cilia?
What does the pharynx do?
continues to warm, humidify and filter the air
What is the enlarged chamber of cartilage at the top of the trachea?
The larynx has a flap of cartilage at the superior opening called what?
What are skeletal muscles stretched across the larynx? As air passes over them, they vibrate and create sound.
In the vocal cords, what is volume determined by?
force of air.
In the vocal cords, what is pitch determined by?
the contraction of the cords
What are vestibular folds?
flat skeletal muscles that control the glottis opening to prevent choking
What is in the lower respiratory tract?
trachea to alveoli
What is in the upper respiratory tract?
nose to larynx
What is a large, rigid tube descending from the larynx to the middle of the chest?
What has a stack of c-rings of cartilage lined with mucous and cilia?
What is the function of the bronchial tree?
increasing surface area for gas exchange
What are the branches off of the trachea that become more numerous and smaller as they progress?
What is the order of the bronchi?
alveolar sacs and alveoli
At the end of each tiniest bronchiole is a cluster of air sacs called what?
alveolar sacs and alveoli
How many alveolar are there in the lungs?
What are the functional units of the respiratory system?
alveoli and gas exchange
What are used to create the wall of the alveolus?
squamous alveolar cells
What secrete pulmonary surfactant?
great alveolar cellls
what is surfactant?
surface action antigen
What does surfactant do?
causes water to be less sticky
helps water spread out
makes alveolar linings slippery
what do alveolar macrophages do?
clean and protect the lining
What cells are the alveolus and capillary?
each alveolus has what?
a bed of capillaries wrapped around it.
How is air moved into and out of the lungs?
What is an umbrella shaped muscle at the base of the rib cage?
What leads to inhaling and exhaling?
contractions and relaxations of the diaphragm
What is boyle's law of gases?
if the volume a gas occupies increases, its pressure will decrease
what is the housing around the bronchial tree?
how many lobes on each lung?
What are the functions of the digestive system?
What does the digestive system remove?
undigested materials and wastes
What does the digestive system do to absorb?
draw the nutrients into the cells of the digestive system
What does it mean when the digestive system chemically or mechanically breaks down nutrients into substances small enough to be absorbed?
What does the digestive system break down nutrients into?
What is the digestive tract?
route that food takes from mouth to anus
What are exocrine glands that use ducts to secrete products into the digestive tract?
what are examples of accessory organs?
What are the 4 tissue layers of the digestive tract?
in the digestive tract, what has thin epithelial tissue around the outside of the organ?
What tissue layer of the digestive track has smooth muscle and moves material that's in the lumen?
in the digestive tract, what has connective tissue and supports the organs needs?
What tissue of the digestive tract has epithelial tissue that coats the inner lining with mucus?
What does the mouth do?
allows food to be ingested
What begins the digestion of food?
What do teeth do?
mechanically digest food into smaller pieces
What helps gather the food and place it between the teeth?
tongue and cheek muscles
What recognizes 5 distinct tastes in our food?
What secretes saliva into the oral cavity?
What begins the breakdown of complex carbohydrates?
What is lysozyme?
What is a bolus?
food combined with mucus and saliva
When is the bolus swallowed?
once its had some time to mix and soften
What is a long tube connecting the pharynx and stomach?
What has a narrow upper opening and a narrow lower opening?
What generates wave-like contractions called peristalsis to encourage the bolus to progress?
What is the J-shaped pouch, in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen?
What secretes several products into the stomach's lumen?
cells of mucosa
what provides a very thick layer of mucus that protects the lining of the stomach from its own enzyme and acid?
What cells of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid that kills many microorganisms?
What cells of the stomach are needed to activate the enzyme produced by the stomach?
What acts as a 'chaperone' for vitamin B12 later in the intestine?
secrete intrinsic factor
in the stomach, what produces and secrete pepsinogen?
in the stomach, what begins the breakdown of proteins?
in the stomach, what rises up and down to mix the boli and gastric secretions?
folds called rugae
in the stomach, what opens occasionally to allow chyme to exit?
the boli and gastric secretions mixture liquifies and is called what?
What is the long tube from the stomach to the large intestine?
How long is the small intestine?
23 ft. long
What are the three regions of the small intestines and their length?
what receives chyme from stomach, and secretions from liver, gall bladder and pancreas?
what does the liver do?
produces and secretes bile
What does emulsifies mean?
force hydrophobic and hydrophilic to work together
what emulsifies lipids in the chyme?
What is a small pouch tucked under the liver that stores and secretes bile?
What is a long gland running transversely beneath the stomach?
the pancreas produces and secretes 5 digestive enzymes. What are they?
What three digestive enzymes in the pancreas breaks down proteins?
What breaks down carbohydrates?
What breaks down lipids?
The lining of what develops finger like folds called villi?
What increases surface area of mucosa for completing digestion and absorbing?
What enzyme completes the breakdown of carbohydrates?
What enzyme completes the breakdown of proteins
once digestion is complete, what can begin?
What are absorbed through facilitated diffusion into the capillaries of the villi of the jejunum?
what are broken down into free fatty acids and monoglycerides in the jejunum?
where do remaining undigested material and wastes begin to solidify?
Where is the completion of nutrient absorption and reabsorption of about 90% of water?
how long is the large intestine?
5 ft. long
what is houstra?
series of pouches along the length of the large intestine
what reabsorbs about the last 10% of water?
what compacts and stores material until it can be removed?
the inner lining of the large intestine is colonized by what?
What is the function of the urinary system?
filter the blood
remove wastes and overabundant materials
what are the funciton of the kidney?
produce urine by filtering the blood
What are ureters?
long tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder
what is the urinary bladder?
what is the urethra?
tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder
what are the layers of the kidney?
renal cortex- outer functional layer
renal medulla- inner functional layer
What are the renal pyramids?
triangular wedges within the medulla whose tips all point toward the renal hilum
what is a minor or major tubes that receive the urine from the renal pyramids?
what merges at the hilum to form the renal pelvis?
all of the calyces
what brings blood to and from the kidneys?
arteries- to the kidney
veins-away from the kidney
what is the functional units of the kidneys that are often located at the junction of the cortex and medulla?
how many nephrons are there?
what are the 4 regions of nephrons?
proximal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule
What is a bowl shaped structure that enwraps a glomerulus and collects anything that leaks out of the glomeruls?
what is a long twisted tube off of the glomerular capsule?
proximal convoluted tubule
what is the u-shaped narrow tube after the PCT?
What is the long twisted tube at the end after nephron loop?
distal convoluted tubuel
what is the small artery bringing blood to a glomerulus to be filtered?
what is a bed of capillaries surrounded by glomerular capsule?
what is the small artery that carries the filtered blood away from the glomerulus?
what is the numerous tiny branches off of efferent arteriole that closely surrounds the nephron?
The glomerular capillaires have holes in them called what?
The forcing of materials in the blood through the holes of the glomerular capillaries (fenestrations) is called what?
What is in the filtrate of glomerular capsule?
drugs and toxins
What is not normally in the filtrate of the glomerular capsule?
white blood cells
red blood cells
after filtering material out of the blood in the glomerulus, the blood exits through what?
the efferent arteriole
What describes the blood adding materials to the filtrate?
what describes the blood taking back materials from the filtrate?
the color of urine depends on what?
water levels in the body
what is the urine made up of?
mostly water with some nitrogenous wastes and electrolytes
what is the functions of the endocrine system?
use hormones to regulate the behavior of cells
used for longer, more gradual changes
what are organs spread throughout the body that can produce and secrete hormones?
What secretes their hormones into capillaries for transport?
What changes in glands?
the rate of secretion of hormones
What requires receptors on the cell surfaces to be effective?
what are the two major types of hormones?
Where is the pituitary gland located?
inferior to the hypothalamus
The pituitary gland controls other glands, but what actually controls the pituitary?
What are the 6 hormones produced and secreted by the pituitary gland in the anterior lobe?
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
luteinizing hormone (LH)
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
growth hormone (GH)
follicle stimulating hormone
testes-stimulates sperm production
ovaries-stimulates egg production
testes-stimulates sperm production
thyroid stimulating hormone
thyroid gland-stimulates release of thyroid hormone
adrenal gland cortex- stimulates the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol)
mammary glands- stimulates milk production
bones, muscles, adipose tissue, liver
stimulates growth and development
Hypothalamus uses neurons to control this lobe of the pituitary gland and releases two hormones
What are the two hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
kidneys-stimulates reabsorption of water
mammary glands-stimulates release of milk