final exam

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final exam
2013-05-09 23:08:45
anatomy physiology

final exam. ap
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  1. What are the functions of the Respiratory system?
    • exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and air
    • vocalization
    • sense of smell
    • eliminated co2 helps the blood pH stay away from being too acidic
  2. What are small openings of the nose that allow air to become surrounded by the body?
    nares (nostrils)
  3. What is the hollow chamber within the nose?
    nasal cavity
  4. Where is the nasal cavity?
    between nares and pharynx
  5. What does the nasal cavity contain?
    folds and valleys
  6. There is mucous in the nose. What does this help with?
    • trap particles in the air (filter)
    • adds moisture to the air (humidify)
  7. What do the folds in the nasal cavity do?
    causes the air to spin on its way through. (warms the air)
  8. What contains hairs and cilia?
    nasal cavity
  9. What does the pharynx do?
    continues to warm, humidify and filter the air
  10. What is the enlarged chamber of cartilage at the top of the trachea?
  11. The larynx has a flap of cartilage at the superior opening called what?
  12. What are skeletal muscles stretched across the larynx? As air passes over them, they vibrate and create sound.
    vocal cords
  13. In the vocal cords, what is volume determined by?
    force of air.
  14. In the vocal cords, what is pitch determined by?
    the contraction of the cords
  15. What are vestibular folds?
    flat skeletal muscles that control the glottis opening to prevent choking
  16. What is in the lower respiratory tract?
    trachea to alveoli
  17. What is in the upper respiratory tract?
    nose to larynx
  18. What is a large, rigid tube descending from the larynx to the  middle of the chest?
  19. What has a stack of c-rings of cartilage lined with mucous and cilia?
  20. What is the function of the bronchial tree?
    increasing surface area for gas exchange
  21. What are the branches off of the trachea that become more numerous and smaller as they progress?
    bronchial tree
  22. What is the order of the bronchi?
    • main bronchi
    • lobar bronchi
    • segmental bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • alveolar sacs and alveoli
  23. At the end of each tiniest bronchiole is a cluster of air sacs called what?
    alveolar sacs and alveoli
  24. How many alveolar are there in the lungs?
    2 million
  25. What are the functional units of the respiratory system?
    alveoli and gas exchange
  26. What are used to create the wall of the alveolus?
    squamous alveolar cells
  27. What secrete pulmonary surfactant?
    great alveolar cellls
  28. what is surfactant?
    surface action antigen
  29. What does surfactant do?
    • causes water to be less sticky
    • helps water spread out
    • makes alveolar linings slippery
  30. what do alveolar macrophages do?
    clean and protect the lining
  31. What cells are the alveolus and capillary?
    simple squamous
  32. each alveolus has what?
    a bed of capillaries wrapped around it.
  33. How is air moved into and out of the lungs?
  34. What is an umbrella shaped muscle at the base of the rib cage?
  35. What leads to inhaling and exhaling?
    contractions and relaxations of the diaphragm
  36. What is boyle's law of gases?
    if the volume a gas occupies increases, its pressure will decrease
  37. what is the housing around the bronchial tree?
  38. how many lobes on each lung?
    • left- 2
    • right-3
  39. What are the functions of the digestive system?
    • ingest
    • move nutrients
    • absorb
    • digest
    • remove
  40. What does the digestive system remove?
    undigested materials and wastes
  41. What does the digestive system do to absorb?
    draw the nutrients into the cells of the digestive system
  42. What does it mean when the digestive system chemically or mechanically breaks down nutrients into substances small enough to be absorbed?
  43. What does the digestive system break down nutrients into?
    • monosaccharide
    • fatty acids
    • amino acids
  44. What is the digestive tract?
    route that food takes from mouth to anus
  45. What are exocrine glands that use ducts to secrete products into the digestive tract?
    accessory organs
  46. what are examples of accessory organs?
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
  47. What are the 4 tissue layers of the digestive tract?
    • serosa
    • muscularis
    • submucosa
    • mucosa
  48. in the digestive tract, what has thin epithelial tissue around the outside of the organ?
  49. What tissue layer of the digestive track has smooth muscle and moves material that's in the lumen?
  50. in the digestive tract, what has connective tissue and supports the organs needs?
  51. What tissue of the digestive tract has epithelial tissue that coats the inner lining with mucus?
  52. What does the mouth do?
    allows food to be ingested
  53. What begins the digestion of food?
    oral cavity
  54. What do teeth do?
    mechanically digest food into smaller pieces
  55. What helps gather the food and place it between the teeth?
    tongue and cheek muscles
  56. What recognizes 5 distinct tastes in our food?
    the tongue
  57. What secretes saliva into the oral cavity?
    salivary glands
  58. What begins the breakdown of complex carbohydrates?
    salivary amylase
  59. What is lysozyme?
  60. What is a bolus?
    food combined with mucus and saliva
  61. When is the bolus swallowed?
    once its had some time to mix and soften
  62. What is a long tube connecting the pharynx and stomach?
  63. What has a narrow upper opening and a narrow lower opening?
  64. What generates wave-like contractions called peristalsis to encourage the bolus to progress?
  65. What is the J-shaped pouch, in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen?
  66. What secretes several products into the stomach's lumen?
    cells of mucosa
  67. what provides a very thick layer of mucus that protects the lining of the stomach from its own enzyme and acid?
    mucous cells
  68. What cells of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid that kills many microorganisms?
    parietal cells
  69. What cells of the stomach are needed to activate the enzyme produced by the stomach?
    parietal cells
  70. What acts as a 'chaperone' for vitamin B12 later in the intestine?
    secrete intrinsic factor
  71. in the stomach, what produces and secrete pepsinogen?
    chief cells
  72. in the stomach, what begins the breakdown of proteins?
  73. in the stomach, what rises up and down to mix the boli and gastric secretions?
    folds called rugae
  74. in the stomach, what opens occasionally to allow chyme to exit?
    pyloric sphincter
  75. the boli and gastric secretions mixture liquifies and is called what?
  76. What is the long tube from the stomach to the large intestine?
    small intestine
  77. How long is the small intestine?
    23 ft. long
  78. What are the three regions of the small intestines and their length?
    • duodenum-12 in.
    • jejunum-10-12 ft.
    • ileum-8-10 ft.
  79. what receives chyme from stomach, and secretions from liver, gall bladder and pancreas?
  80. what does the liver do?
    produces and secretes bile
  81. What does emulsifies mean?
    force hydrophobic and hydrophilic to work together
  82. what emulsifies lipids in the chyme?
  83. What is a small pouch tucked under the liver that stores and secretes bile?
  84. What is a long gland running transversely beneath the stomach?
  85. the pancreas produces and secretes 5 digestive enzymes. What are they?
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidase
    • pancreatic amylase
    • pancreatic lipase
  86. What three digestive enzymes in the pancreas breaks down proteins?
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidase
  87. What breaks down carbohydrates?
    pancreatic amylase
  88. What breaks down lipids?
    pancreatic lipase
  89. The lining of what develops finger like folds called villi?
  90. What increases surface area of mucosa for completing digestion and absorbing?
  91. What enzyme completes the breakdown of carbohydrates?
    • maltose
    • lactase
    • sucrose
  92. What enzyme completes the breakdown of proteins
  93. once digestion is complete, what can begin?
  94. What are absorbed through facilitated diffusion into the capillaries of the villi of the jejunum?
    • monosaccharides
    • amino acids
  95. what are broken down into free fatty acids and monoglycerides in the jejunum?
  96. where do remaining undigested material and wastes begin to solidify?
  97. Where is the completion of nutrient absorption and reabsorption of about 90% of water?
  98. how long is the large intestine?
    5 ft. long
  99. what is houstra?
    series of pouches along the length of the large intestine
  100. what reabsorbs about the last 10% of water?
    large intestine
  101. what compacts and stores material until it can be removed?
    large intestine
  102. the inner lining of the large intestine is colonized by what?
  103. What is the function of the urinary system?
    • filter the blood
    • remove wastes and overabundant materials
  104. what are the funciton of the kidney?
    produce urine by filtering the blood
  105. What are ureters?
    long tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder
  106. what is the urinary bladder?
    stores urine
  107. what is the urethra?
    tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder
  108. what are the layers of the kidney?
    • fibrous capsule-outside
    • renal cortex- outer functional layer
    • renal medulla- inner functional layer
  109. What are the renal pyramids?
    triangular wedges within the medulla whose tips all point toward the renal hilum
  110. what is a minor or major tubes that receive the urine from the renal pyramids?
  111. what merges at the hilum to form the renal pelvis?
    all of the calyces
  112. what brings blood to and from the kidneys?
    • arteries- to the kidney
    • veins-away from the kidney
  113. what is the functional units of the kidneys that are often located at the junction of the cortex and medulla?
  114. how many nephrons are there?
    2 million
  115. what are the 4 regions of nephrons?
    • glomerular capsule
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • nephron loop
    • distal convoluted tubule
  116. What is a bowl shaped structure that enwraps a glomerulus and collects anything that leaks out of the glomeruls?
    glomerular capsule
  117. what is a long twisted tube off of the glomerular capsule?
    proximal convoluted tubule
  118. what is the u-shaped narrow tube after the PCT?
    nephron loop
  119. What is the long twisted tube at the end after nephron loop?
    distal convoluted tubuel
  120. what is the small artery bringing blood to a glomerulus to be filtered?
    afferent arteriole
  121. what is a bed of capillaries surrounded by glomerular capsule?
  122. what is the small artery that carries the filtered blood away from the glomerulus?
    efferent arteriole
  123. what is the numerous tiny branches off of efferent arteriole that closely surrounds the nephron?
    peritubular capillaries
  124. The glomerular capillaires have holes in them called what?
  125. The forcing of materials in the blood through the holes of the glomerular capillaries (fenestrations) is called what?
  126. What is in the filtrate of glomerular capsule?
    • water
    • nitrogenous wastes
    • electrolytes
    • drugs and toxins
    • glucose
  127. What is not normally in the filtrate of the glomerular capsule?
    • white blood cells
    • red blood cells
    • platelets 
    • most proteins
  128. after filtering material out of the blood in the glomerulus, the blood exits through what?
    the efferent arteriole
  129. What describes the blood adding materials to the filtrate?
    tubular secretion
  130. what describes the blood taking back materials from the filtrate?
    tubular reabsorption
  131. the color of urine depends on what?
    water levels in the body
  132. what is the urine made up of?
    mostly water with some nitrogenous wastes and electrolytes
  133. what is the functions of the endocrine system?
    • use hormones to regulate the behavior of cells
    • used for longer, more gradual changes
  134. what are organs spread throughout the body that can produce and secrete hormones?
  135. What secretes their hormones into capillaries for transport?
  136. What changes in glands?
    the rate of secretion of hormones
  137. What requires receptors on the cell surfaces to be effective?
  138. what are the two major types of hormones?
    • protein/protein like 
    • lipid based
  139. Where is the pituitary gland located?
    inferior to the hypothalamus
  140. The pituitary gland controls other glands, but what actually controls the pituitary?
  141. What are the 6 hormones produced and secreted by the pituitary gland in the anterior lobe?
    • follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • prolactin (PRL)
    • growth hormone (GH)
  142. follicle stimulating hormone
    target cells
    • gonadotropin 
    • testes-stimulates sperm production
    • ovaries-stimulates egg production
  143. luteinizing hormone 
    target cells
    • gonadotropin
    • testes-stimulates sperm production
    • ovaries-stimulates ovulation
  144. thyroid stimulating hormone
    target cells
    thyroid gland-stimulates release of thyroid hormone
  145. adrenocorticotropic hormone 
    target cells
    adrenal gland cortex- stimulates the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol)
  146. prolactin 
    target cells
    • testes-sperm production
    • mammary glands- stimulates milk production
  147. growth hormone
    target cells
    • bones, muscles, adipose tissue, liver
    • stimulates growth and development
  148. Hypothalamus uses neurons to control this lobe of the pituitary gland and releases two hormones
    posterior lobe
  149. What are the two hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • oxytocin (OT)
  150. antidiuretic hormone(vasopressin)
    target cells
    kidneys-stimulates reabsorption of water
  151. oxytocin (OT)
    target cells
    • uterus-stimulates contractions
    • mammary glands-stimulates release of milk