BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 1
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How long is the adult gastrointestinal tract?
About 15 ft long
What are the organs of the GI?
- small intestine
- Large intestine
What are the accessory organs of the GI?
- Salivary glands
What is the main purpose of the GI/
to supply nutrients to the body
What are the main nutrients that the GI supplies?
- Amino Acids
What processes control motility, secretion, digestion and absorption?
hormones and neural inputs
What are the four main activities of the GI system?
What is digestion?
Dissolving and breaking down large particles into small particles that can be absorbed
What component of the GI digests food?
What exocrine glands secrete digestive enzymes?
- Salivary glands
- Gastric glands
- Small intestine epithelial cells
Where does digestion occur?
- The Lumen of the mouth
- Small intestine
After food crosses the small intestinal villi, where does it end up?
In the blood and lymph
What mixes and moves intestinal contents from the mouth to anus?
Smooth muscle contractions
What is the term for smooth muscle contractions in the GI wall?
What areas of the GI have a structured layered pattern?
From the mid-esophagus to the anus
What is the innermost layer of the GI called?
What are the components of the Mucosa from the lumen of the bowel outward?
- Lamina Propria
- Muscularis mucosa
Describe the surface morphology of the GI wall?
Epithelial mucosa cells are have highly specialized functions (T/F)?
True, many different types
What are some of the major functions of epithelial cells in the GI mucosa?
- Secretion of:
What are the four higher order layers of the GI wall?
- Muscularis externa
What are the components of the submucosa?
- Major blood and lymph vessels
- Nerve plexus
What are the components of the Muscularis externa?
- Circular muscle
- Myenteric nerve plexus
- Longitudinal muscle
What is the lamina propria compoased of?
Tissue containing small blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels
What is the purpose of the Muscularis mucosa?
- Creates small movements of the mucosa
- enhances mixing, digestion and absorption at the luminal surface
The myenteric plexus has what purpose?
Coordinate the muscle contractions of the muscularis externa
The blood and lymphatic vessels of the submucosal plexus serve what parts of the GI wall?
The mucosa and the muscularis externa.
What part ofthe GI wall promotes mixing and motility?
The muscularis externa
What GI functions are benefited by the convoluted morphology of the wall?
Digestion and Absorption
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