BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 2

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BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 2
2013-05-01 15:46:37
BIOL 404 Exam GI

BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 2
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  1. What two structures increase the surface area in the Intestine?
    Villi and Microvilli
  2. What is the surface area of the small intestine?
    300 square meters (area of the tennis court)
  3. Where does nutrient absorption occur?
    The small intestine
  4. What is a lacteal?
    A dead end lymph projection into the Villi, surrounded by capillaries and nerves
  5. Where do new epithelial cells arise from?
    by division from cells at the base of the villi
  6. How often is the entire epithelium of the small intestine replaced?
    Every 5 days
  7. When do epithelial cells gain their specializations?
    As they migrate from the base of the villi to their final location
  8. Most nutrients enter the Villi and are absorbed where?
    Into the blood stream
  9. Fat digestion products are absorbed where after entering the villi?
    The Lacteal
  10. What is absorbed into the lacteal?
    Fat digestion products
  11. Hormone secreting epithelial cells are located in which layer of the gastrointestinal wall?
  12. Where do digestive enzymes arise from?
    • Attached to the surface of small intestine epithelial cells
    • Secreted from GI glands in the wall
    • Secreted from gland that have ducts to the wall of the GI
  13. Define Absorption:
    Process by which molecules are transported into the epithelial cells and then enter the blood or lymph
  14. What is the name of the process by which molecules enter epithelial cells and then the blood or lymph?
  15. Where does absorption primarily occur?
    In the small intestine and Colon
  16. What is absorbed in the colon?
    • Water
    • Electrolytes
  17. What is absorbed in the Small Intestine?
    • Organic molecules
    • Nutrients
    • Water
    • Electrolytes
  18. What is the average Carbohydrate intake for americans?
    250-800 g/day
  19. What makes up 2/3 of dietary carbohydrate intake?
    Plant Starch
  20. What are the three sources of polysaccharides?
    • Plant starch
    • Animal Glycogen
    • Plant cellulose
  21. Why can we not break down cellulose?
    Differing chemical bond that cannot be broken down by amylase
  22. What are the three categories of carbohydrates?
    • Polysaccharides
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
  23. What is another name for simple sugars?
  24. What catagory of sugars do you need the least of in a diet?
  25. What is sucrose composed of?
    glucose and fructose
  26. What is table sugar?
    Sucrose (glucose-fructose)
  27. What is lactose composed of?
  28. What is the name for a glucose galactose dimer?
  29. What is the name for a glucose fructose dimer?