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2010-06-02 00:53:53

gisslen chap 8 stocks and sauces
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  1. The most important ingredient of stocks
  2. what determines the kind of stock?
    the kind of bones
  3. white stock is made from
    beaf or veal bones (chicken or pork may be added)
  4. brown stock is made from
    beef or veal bones that have been browned
  5. fish stock is made from
    fish bones and trimmings after filleting
  6. best fish to use for fish stock
    lean white fish
  7. a flavorful fish stock is called
  8. connective tissue
    when break down in slow moist heat, form gelatin
  9. what is the best source of gelatin in bones?
  10. what are great bones to use for stock making?
    knuckle, neck, and shank
  11. true or false: the most cartilage is found in old animals
  12. cut large bones into what size for stock?
  13. what is a broth?
    • made by simmering meat or poultry this book means a flavorful liquid
    • obtained from the simmering of meats or vegetables
  14. what is mirepoix?
    combination of celery, onions, carrots
  15. what is the proportion in mirepoix?
    2:1:1 (onions:carrots:celery)
  16. what is a white mirepoix?
    remove the carrots, can also substitute leeks for onions. may use mushroom trimmings. for white sauces
  17. how should mirepoix be cut?
    relatively uniform, size depends on length of cooking
  18. why would you add acid products to stock?
    acids help dissolve connective tissue
  19. would you use tomato products in a white stock?
    no, it colors the stock
  20. what does too much tomatoe do to a stock?
    make it cloudy
  21. should you make stock out of scraps and leftovers?
    only if they are high quality and harmonious
  22. do you add salt to a stock?
  23. what is a bouquet garni?
    an assortment of fresh herbs and other aromatics tied in a bundle with a string
  24. what is a sachet?
    a collection of herbs and spices tied in cheesecloth
  25. what proportion are the ingredients?
    mirepoix 1 : bones 5 : water 10 by weight (1:8:1.5)
  26. how long should you cook a vegetable stock?
    about 45 minutes
  27. why blanch bones?
    removes some of the impurities that cause cloudiness
  28. what is the procedure for blanching?
    rinse bones in cold, place in stockpot and cover with cold, bring to a boil, drain and rinse
  29. what is the procedure for preparing a white stock?
    bones 3-4", rinse, place in stockpot, bring to a boil, then reduce to a simmer. skim. add mirepoix and herbs/spices. keep at a low simmer. keep water above bones. skim and strain through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth cool as quickly as possible
  30. how long should a white stock simmer?
    beef/veal - 6 to 8 hours, chicken - 3 to 4 hours, fish - 30 to 45 minutes
  31. what is the procedure for preparing a brown stock?
    cut bones. do not rinse or blanch. roast until well browned. put in stockpot, cover with water, bring to a simmer. drain and reserve fat from roasting pan. deglaze. add deglazing liquid and bits to stockpot. roast mirepoix. skim. add mirepoix, etc. continue as per white stock
  32. what is a remouillage?
    "rewetting" re-using bones for subsequent lower quality stock
  33. what is a reduction?
    concentrated stock by boiling/simmering
  34. what is a glace?
    a stock reduced until it coatst he back of a spoon. reduced by 3/4 or more
  35. glace de viande
    meat glaze made from brown stock
  36. glace de volaille
    glaze made from chicken stock
  37. glace de poisson
    glaze made from fish stock
  38. what is fond?
  39. what is a convenience base?
    concentrated convenience products glazes are the original base
  40. what is the function of a sauce?
    adds moisture, flavor, richness, appearance, sheen, interest and appetite appeal
  41. what is the structure of a sauce?
    the body - liquid, a thickening agent, and seasoning and flavoring ingredients
  42. what are leading sauces?
    also known as mother sauces. white stock, brown stock, milk, tomato plus stock, clarified butter
  43. what is a thickening agent?
    a starch when starch plus heat plus liquid meat, gelatinization happens
  44. examples of thickening agents
    flour, cornstarch, arrowroot, rice flour, potato flour, waxy maise, bread crumbs
  45. what must be done to the starch before heating in liquid?
    granules must be separated. do this with fat or a cold liquid
  46. what is a roux?
    a cooked mixture of equal parts by weight of fat and flour
  47. what flour should you use?
    high starch, low protein flour. cake/pastry
  48. does a browned flour thicken as well as an un-browned?
    no. it has about 1/3 of the thickening power
  49. why simmer sauces after thickening?
    allow for complete gelatinization and allow other impurities to scum out
  50. how to cook white roux
    cooked for just a few minutes: cook out the raw taste. stop just as the roux has a frothy chalky slightly gritty appearance
  51. how to cook blond roux?
    cooked until the roux turns slightly darker. used for veloutes
  52. how to cook a brown roux?
    cook until it takes on a light brown color and a nutty aroma. must be over low heat
  53. how should you incorporate roux?
    can add to liquid, or add liquid to. both should NOT be hot
  54. how long do you simmer a roux sauce?
    at least 20 minutes
  55. roux to liquid proportions
    roux to a gallon of liquid 12:16:24 for thin:med:thick
  56. what is beurre manie?
    a mixture of equal parts soft raw butter and flour worked together to form a smooth paste. used for quick thickening to finish a sauce
  57. what is whitewash?
    thin mixture of flour and cold water (not recommended)
  58. cooking with cornstarch
    produces an almost clear sauce with a glossy texture. does not hold. has about 2x the thickening power of flour
  59. thickening with arrowroot
    used like cornstarch, gives a cleaer sauce. high cost used for jus lie
  60. thickening with waxy maize
    used for sauces that will be frozen. handled like cornstarch
  61. thickening with instant starches
    used in bakeshop
  62. what is a liason?
    mixture of egg yolks and cream (8oz, three yolks) do not heat above 180 gives richness finishing technique needs to be tempered
  63. what is reduction?
    simmering to evaporate water
  64. why reduce?
    to concentrate flavors, to adjust texture, to add new flavors
  65. au sec
    to reduce until dry or nearly dry
  66. why strain?
    creates velvety smoothness
  67. what is deglazing?
    swirling a liquid in a saute pan or other pan to dissolve cooked particles remaining on the bottom
  68. enriching with heavy cream
    used to give flavor and richness
  69. monter au beurre
    finish with butter gives a little extra shine and smoothness, and richness
  70. advantages of roux
    bulletproof, strong, stable
  71. disadvantages of roux
    takes a long time to cook out. lots of fat
  72. advantages of beurre manie?
    quick for pan sauces, adds sheen and fat
  73. disadvantages of beurre manie?
    adds fat and cholesterol. does not work in large batches
  74. advantages of slurry?
    very fast, cooks up clear, does not add fat/cholesterol
  75. disadvantages of slurry
    not durable, will break down, cannot freeze (except for arrowroot, waxy maize)
  76. advantages of liason?
    yummy mouthfeel
  77. disadvantages of liason?
    fat, fat, and more fat. volatile in heat and will break
  78. advantages of a reduction?
    intensity and flavor
  79. disadvantages of reduction? time-consuming and expensive
  80. what is a slurry?
    mixture of starch and water. stir into a hot liuqid bring to a boil and simmer until clear
  81. what is a court boullion?
    a short borth - not a stock, although prepared like one. flavorful poaching liquid, usually has wine/vinegar
  82. what is an essence?
    stocks made in concentrated and highly aromatic form
  83. how reduced is a glace?
    about a gallon down to 1 - 2 cups
  84. what is matignon?
    edible mirepoix used as garnish in a dish often includes ham. needs to be a pretty dice
  85. what is the cajun trinity?
    onion, celery, green peper
  86. what is onion picque?
    usually used in bechamel. half onion with bay leaf and cloves
  87. waht is onion brulee?
    burnt onion. adds color, flavor, and aroma to stocks, consomme, soups
  88. when would you sweat bones?
    in a fume. it helps to quickly release flavors
  89. what are the quality checks for stock flavor?
    should be main flavor, balanced, no off flavor
  90. if stock flavor is off
    because of not enough main flavor to water, not enough cooking time, or poor quality product
  91. what are the quality checks for stock body?
    full-bodied, viscous
  92. if stock body is off, what happened?
    wrong bones - not enough connective tissue, not enough bones to water, not enough cooking time
  93. what are quality checks for stock color?
    resemblance to flavor and desired appearance
  94. if stock color is wrong, what happened?
    improper carmelization for brown stock, not enough main ingredient to water, not enough cooking time
  95. what are quality checks for stock aroma?
    appropriate to main ingredient and aromatics, no off odors
  96. if stock aroma is off, what happened?
    not enough cooking time of aromatics, poor quality aromatics, not enough aromatics
  97. what are quality checks for stock clarity?
    relatively clear, not cloudy
  98. if stock clarity is off, what happened?
    boiled or started with hot water, improper straining / skimming
  99. how long should you cook chicken stock?
    4 - 5 hours
  100. how long should you cook veal stock?
    7 or 8 hours
  101. how long should you cook beef stock?
    8 - 10 hours
  102. how long should you cook fumet?
    45 minutes