Biology 240

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Biology 240
2013-05-03 01:35:16

exam #1
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  1. identification and classification of organisms following the rules of nomenclature
  2. the study of the evolutionary history of a species or group of species
  3. the study of phylogeny
  4. study of biodiversity in an evolutionary context
  5. two main characteristics of linnean system
    • each species has a two part name
    • species are organized hierarchically into broader and broader groups of organisms
  6. species has a two part name
  7. the second part of binomial system
    specific epithet
  8. groups species into broader taxonomic categories
    hierachial classification
  9. species that appear closely related are grouped into the same genus
  10. each taxonomic level is more comprehensive tahn the previous one
    all species of cats are mammals, but not all mammals are cats
  11. taxonomic unit at any level
  12. 3 main objectives of systematics
    • define characters and delimit species
    • organize species into higher taxonomic catergories (genus to kingdom)
    • taxonomic structure should reflect phylogeny
  13. three ways systematics define characters and delimit species
    • describe the combo of characters that define a species
    • sort similar organisms and assign to a species
    • choose a species concept
  14. are determined through observations and interpretations
    characters and character states
  15. alternate values for a character
    character states
  16. microevolution is reflected in character state changes
  17. organ, structure, size, color
  18. tissue or cell type, ultrastructure
  19. chemical pathways, enzymes
  20. base pair sequence to protein sequence
  21. patterns of development
  22. classifying species into higher taxonomic categories based on overall similarity
  23. overall similarity must be based on homologous characters not on analogous characters
  24. similarity in characters resulting from common ansetry
  25. similarity in characters resulting from convergent evolution
  26. phylogenetic trees reflect the hierarchical classification of taxonomic groups nested within more inclusive groups
  27. phylogeny is determined by a variety of evidence such as these 3
    • fossils
    • molecular data
    • anatomy
  28. most systematics use _____ to analyze the data
    cladistic analysis
  29. a phylogenetic diagram is constructed from a series of dichotomies
  30. a clade that consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants
    monophyletic group
  31. groups that do not fit the definition of a monophyletic group definition are considered
    unacceptable in cladistics
  32. a taxon that includes the ancestor and all of its descendants
  33. a taxon that includes the ancestor and some but not all of its descendants
  34. a taxon that includes species derived from more than one recent ancestor
  35. apomorphic
    derived character
  36. pleisiomorphic
    primitive character
  37. forelimbs of bats and birds are analogous adaptations because they both evolved for flight from forelimbs that were used for walking
  38. similarities that are based on shared ancestry
  39. presence of forelimbs in both birds and bats are an example of
  40. the more homologous parts that two species share, the more closely related they are
    the more complex two structures are the less likely that they evolved independently
  41. is unique to a particular clade (synapomorphies)
    shared derived character
  42. is found not only in the clade being analyzed, but older clades too (sympleisiomorphies)
    shared primitive character
  43. building a monophyletic phylogeny is based on use of
    shared derived characters
  44. analyzing the taxonomic distribution of homologies enable us to identify the sequence in which derived characters evolved
  45. presents the chronological sequence of branching during the evoluitionary history of a set of organisms
  46. systematics can use cladograms to place species in the taxonomic hierarchy`
  47. the principle of ______ helps systematists reconstruct phylogeny
  48. a theory that nature should be the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts
  49. the evolution of the eukaryotic cell led to the development of several unique cell structures and processes such as these 6
    • membrane enclosed nucleus
    • endomembrane system
    • mito and chloro
    • cytoskeleton 9+2 flagella
    • multiple chromosome of dna with organizing proteins
    • life cycles with mit, mei, and sex
  50. these two things of prokaryotes imposes limits on the number of different metabolic activities that can be accomplished at one time
    • small size
    • simple construction
  51. how does the small size of a prokaryote limit the number of metabolic activities
    it limits the number of genes coding for enzymes that control the activities
  52. three trends of prokaryotes
    • evolution of colonial prokaryotes
    • evolution of complex communities of prokaryotes
    • compartmentalization of different functions with single cells
  53. the evolution of colonial prokaryotes trend
    individuals form thin filaments or sheets of cells
  54. the evolution of complex communities of prokaryotes trend
    species benefit from the metabolic specialties of others
  55. compartmentalization of different functions within single cells trend
    evolutionary solution that contributed to the origins of eukaryotes
  56. modification of the plasma membrane into specialized structure
    autogenic origin
  57. endocytosis of prokaryotes that develop into symbiotic organelle
    endosymbiotic origin
  58. autogenic origin model suggests that
    nuclear envelope and the endomembrane system of eukaryotes may have evolved from infoldings of plasma membrane
  59. endosymbiotic origin model
    supports the origin of the mitochondria and the chloroplast
  60. these two structures possibly developed through invagination of the plasma membrane
    • nucleus
    • endomembrane system
  61. become more complex and more numerous because of complex metabolism
  62. evolved in response to making DNA more stable and easier to divide
    histone proteins
  63. these two evolved in response to extremem environmental conditions
    • nuclear membrane
    • histone proteins
  64. in living eukaryotes today, the nuclear membrane is often attachted to the
    plasma membrane
  65. where is the endoplasmic reticulum located
    attatched to the nuclear membrane
  66. where did the mitochondria and chloroplast evolve from
    endosymbiotic bacteria
  67. serial endosymbiosis theory
    proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formely small prokaryotes living within larger cells
  68. proposed ancestors of mitochondria were
    aerobic heterotrophic prokaryotes
  69. the proposed ancestors of chloroplasts were
    photoautotrophic prokaryotes
  70. the ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts  probably entered the host cell by
    undigested prey or internal parasites
  71. how could the heterotrophic host derive nourishment
    from photosynthetic endosymbionts such as chloroplasts
  72. in an increasingly aerobic world, an anaerobic host cell could benefit from what and by
    mitocondriam, aerobic endosymbionts that could exploit oxygen
  73. serial endosymbiosis theory supposes that
    mitochondria evolved before chloroplasts
  74. 6 lines of evidence for serial endosymbiosis
    • organelles and bacteria are same size
    • enzymes and transport systems in the inner membrane of chloro and mito resemble those in plasma membrane of prokaryotes
    • replication by mito and chloro resembles binary fission in bacteria
    • single circular dna in chloro and mito lack histones and other proteins as in prokary
    • both organelles have the molecules for transcription
    • ribosomes of both chloro and mito are similar to those of pro than euk
  75. all eukaryotes have or have had mito
  76. two lineages that lack mitochondria but have mito genes in their nuclear genome
    • diplomonadida
    • parabasala
  77. chloroplast evolved after mitochondria however diversified into numerous lineages of
  78. it is proposed that cilia and flagella evolved from
    symbiotic bacteria
  79. cilia and flagella aka
  80. is a chimera of prokaryotic ancestors
    eukaryotic cell
  81. the eukaryotic cell evolved by
    horizontal fusions of species from different phylogenetic lineages
  82. origin of the new taxonomic groups
  83. is the keystone process in the origination of diversity of higher
  84. vary dictated by available data
    species concepts
  85. the accumulation of changes associated with the transformation of one species into another
  86. fossil record chronicles two patterns of speciation
    • anagenesis
    • cladogenesis
  87. branching evolution is the budding of one or more new species from a parent species
  88. promotes biological diversity by increasing the number of species
  89. the node of a phylogenic tree represents
    a speciation event
  90. three major species concept
    • morphological species
    • biological species
    • evolutionary species
  91. morphological species concept emphasizes overall similarity
  92. morphological species characterized by combinations of these 3 features
    • morphological
    • anatomical
    • physiological
  93. individuals with the similar overall morphologies belong to the same species
  94. 4 problems with the morphological species concept
    • not address relatedness
    • does not address convergent evolution
    • some species are morphologically identical yet do not interbreed and exchange genetic info
  95. a population or group whose members have the potential to interbreed with each other to produce viable offspring
  96. set of populations in which genetic exchange is possible and genetically isolated from other populations
    biological species
  97. species are based on ______ not phyiscal similarity
  98. 4 problems with biological species
    • works well for animals but not for plants
    • we do not have data on the ability of individuals to interbreed
    • does not work on asexual organisms
    • does not work for fossils
  99. those who share a recent common ancestor belong to the same species
  100. concept that emphasizes reproductive isolation
    biological species
  101. concept that emphasizes genetic relatedness
    evolutionary species
  102. concept that emphasizes overall similarities
    morphological species
  103. 3 problems with evolutionary species concept
    • few data to interpret relatedness and ancestry
    • does not work for fossils due to only morphological data from body parts that fossilize
    • systematists must decide how much genetic variation is required to delimit between distinct species
  104. 2 reproductive barriers
    • prezygotic
    • postzygotic
  105. these 2 isolate the gene pools of biological species
    • prezygotic
    • postzygotic barriers
  106. impede mating between species or hinder fertilization of ova if members of different species attempt to mate
    prezygotic barriers
  107. 6 prezygotic barriers
    • habitat isolation
    • behavioral isolation
    • temporal isolation
    • mechanical isolation
    • gametic isolation
    • geographical isolation
  108. two organisms that live in different geographic areas are unlikely to encounter each other to attempt mating
    geographic isolation
  109. discrete populations
  110. populations that occupy the same geographic area
  111. two organisms that use different habitats even in the same geographic area are unlikely to encounter each other to even attempt meeting
    habitat isolation
  112. example of habitat isolation
    forest canopy and forest floor
  113. many species elaborate behaviors unique to a species to attract mates
    behavioral isolation
  114. behavioral isolation example
  115. two species that breed during different times of day, different seasons, or different years cannot mix gametes
    temporal isolation
  116. closely related species may attempt to mate but fail because they are anatomically incompatible and transfer of sperm is not possible
    mechanical isolation
  117. occurs when gametes of two species do not form a zygote because of incompatibilities preventing fusion or other mechanisms
    gametic isolation
  118. prevent the hybrid zygote from developing into a viable fertile adult
    postzygotic barriers
  119. offspring of a mating between two different species
  120. genetic incompatibility between the two species may abort the
    (hybrid inviability)
    development of the hybrid at some embryonic stage or produce frail offspring
  121. even if the hybrid offspring are vigorous,
    the hybrid maybe infertile and the hybrid cannot backbreed with either parental species
  122. hybrid inviability example
    frogs that do not complete development or if they do they are frail
  123. example of hybrid infertility
  124. 2 general modes of speciation are distinguished by the mechanism by which gene flow among populations is initially interrupted
    • allopatric
    • sympatric
  125. geographic separation of populations restricts gene flow
    allopatric speciation
  126. speciation occurs in geographically overlapping populations when biological factors reduce gene flow
    sympatric speciation
  127. several geological processes can fragment a population into two or more isolated populations
  128. due to allopatric speciation individuals may
    colonize a new area and become isolated from the parent population
  129. likelihood of allopatric speciation increases when
    a population is both small and isolated
  130. a small isolated population is more likely to have its gene pool changed substantially by genetic drift and natural selection
  131. very few small isolated populations will ______
    most populations will ______
    • develop into new species
    • simply perish in their new environment
  132. evolution of many diverse adapted species from a common ancestor
    adaptive radiation
  133. new species form when geographically isolated populations evolve reproductive barriers as a byproduct of genetic drift and natural selection to its new environment
    allopatric speciation
  134. new species arise within the range of the parent populations
    sympatric speciation
  135. sympatric speciation can result from a mutant condition
  136. this mutant can reproduce with itself or with tetraploids (4n)
  137. this ploidy cannot mate with diploids from the original populations
  138. polyploidy individuals that occur when individuals are produced by the matings of two different species
  139. polyploidy hybrids are fertile but cannot interbreed with either parent species
    (hybrids are sterile)
  140. example of polyploidy in agricultural products
    cotton, oats, potatoes, tobacco
  141. evolutionary tree diagram assume that big changes occur as the accumulation of many small ones
    gradualism model
  142. sudden apparent appearance of species in the fossil record may reflect allopatric speciation
  143. the tempo of speciation is not constant
    punctuated equilibrium model
  144. punctuated equilibrium model
    species undergo most morphological modifications when they first bod from their parent population
    after establishing themselves as seperate species they remain static for the vast majority of their existance
  145. spurts of rapid evolutionary change followed by longer periods of stasis
    punctuated equilibrium model
  146. a change over the generations in a populations allele frequency by genetic drift or NS
  147. occurs when a populations genetic divergence from its ancestral population results in reproductive isolation
  148. is the boundary between micro and macroevolution
  149. evolutionary novelties can arise by gradual refinement of existing structures for new functions
  150. example of exaptation
    gill slits in early jawless fish became jaw bones of jaw fish
  151. research that examines how slight genetic divergences can become magnified into major morphological differences between species
    evo devo
  152. an evolutionary change in the rate or timing of developmental events
  153. tracks how proportions of structures change due to different growth rates during development
    allometric growth
  154. evolution of morphology by modification of allometric growth is an example of
  155. appears to be responsible for differences in the feet of tree dwelling and ground dwelling salamanders
    allometric growth
  156. rate of reproductive development accelerates compared to somatic development, then a sexually mature stage can retain juvenile structures
  157. 4 reasons species become extinct
    • habitat destroyed
    • environment has changed
    • evolutionary changes by other species in its community
    • evolution by cambrian animals caused other animals to be vulnerable to predation
  158. this mass extinction claimed 90% of all marine species
  159. permian mass extinction
    250 mya
  160. doomed half of marine species and many families of terrestrial plants and animals
    cretaceous mass extinction
  161. cretaceous mass extinction
    65 mya
  162. event that defines the boundary between the mesozoic and cenozoic era
  163. 2 hypothesis for the mechanisms behind the cretaceous mass extinction
    • climate became cooler
    • large volcanic eruptions
  164. are what we see (data)
  165. are mechanisms that responsible for those patterns
  166. the first scientist to propose a system of evolution
  167. noticed that fossils became more complex in more recent rock strata
  168. believed there was an initial drive towards complexity
  169. believed evolution was based on two principles
  170. two principles evolution was based on
    • acquired characteristics
    • universal creative force
  171. organs/structure became stronger/weaker with use/disuse and are passed in to offspring
    acquired characteristics
  172. unconscious striving in the lower creatures to become more complex and human
    universal creative force
  173. said species are fixed and do not change
  174. a philosophy of science based on the assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present
  175. they concluded that the earth was very old and had changed its form slowly over time due to natural processes
    • hutton
    • lyell
  176. was able to date the ages of rocks by using fossils embedded in the stone as time indicators
  177. made use of lyells data on fossils for his theory of evolution
  178. suggested that competition between individuals could change species
    darwin's grandfather
  179. observed that in nature organisms produce more offspring than survive
  180. was the first to talk about survival of the fittest
  181. two geologists
    • hutton
    • lyell
  182. english naturalist
  183. darwins hypothesis
    earth changed slowly over time then the environmental pressures on different species would also change
  184. emerging changes on earth would then force
    species to adapt or perish
  185. 4 observations based on darwins theory of natural selection
    • members of a pop vary in their traits
    • traits are inherited from parents
    • all species can produce more offspring than the environment can support
    • lack of food or other resources may lead to loss of offspring
  186. 2 inferences based on darwins theory of NS
    • those who inherit traits that give them a higher chance of survival produce more offspring
    • inequality in survival and reproduction will lead to favorable traits in a population over time
  187. change in the allele frequency in a population over time
  188. example of a pattern
  189. may be one method by which gene frequencies change
  190. example of processes
  191. had similar ideas on evolutiona and natural selection the same time as darwin
  192. a common ancestor that lived in the past undergoes modification to live in a particular habitat accumulated over millions of years
    descent with modification
  193. individuals with certain characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than those without those traits
    natural selection
  194. if the environment changes or species move to a new location, NS results in adaptation to these new conditions and may give rise to new species
  195. works at the level of the individual
  196. individuals do not evolve populations do
  197. only enhances or diminishes heritable traits
  198. acquired traits cannot be passed on to offspring
  199. early terrestrial vertebrates arose from a group of ____
    early terrestrial vertebrates arose from ____
    • fishes
    • amphibians
  200. evolution is descent with modification
  201. modifications should be observable as characters are altered by NS
  202. organisms find the same way to solve the same problem given their own characterstics
    convergent evolution
  203. 3 mechanisms that cause allele frequency change
    • NS
    • genetic drift
    • genetic floq
  204. causes adaptive evolution
  205. genetic variation makes evolution possible
  206. variation in heritable traits is a prerequisite for evolution
  207. genetic variation among individuals is caused by
    differences in genes or dna segments
  208. is a product of inherited genotype and environmental influences
  209. can only act on variation with a genetic component
  210. genetic variation can be measured by these two
    • gene variability
    • nucleotide variability
  211. measures the average percent of loci that are heterozygous in a population
    average heterozygosity
  212. differences between gene pools of seperate populations
    geographic variation
  213. what causes chromosomal variation among populations? what doesnt?
    • genetic drift
    • NS
  214. geographic variation occurs in a
  215. a graded change in a trait along a geographical axis
  216. a change in 1 base pair in a gene can have a significant impact on phenotypes
    point mutation
  217. 2 ways point mutations can effect
    • noncoding regiongs of dna (often harmless)
    • genes can be neutral
  218. 3 changes in gene number sequence
    • harmful
    • neutral effect
    • beneficial
  219. 60% of human olfaction genes have been inactivated by mutations
  220. mutation rates
    1/100000 genes per generation
  221. can shuffle existing alleles into new combinations
    sexual reproduction
  222. in sexual organisms, reproduction is more efficent than mutations in producing
    genetic differences
  223. 3 processes can contribute to genetic variability
    • meiosis
    • independent assortment
    • fertilization
  224. consists of all the alleles for all loci in a population
    gene pool
  225. what makes a locus fixed in all individuals in a population
    if they are homozygous for the same allele
  226. sequence of dna responsible for traits
  227. allele frequencies equation
  228. hardy weinberg theorem equation
    • p2+2pq+q2=1
    • p & q

  229. the probability of 2 independent events both occuring is the product of their individua; probabilities
    probability theory
  230. HW theorem occurs only if these 5 forces arent acting against it
    • mutation
    • migration
    • NS
    • chance effects
    • non-random mating
  231. in the absence of the HW frequencies, they will remain the same from year to year
  232. different populations may have different allele frequncy
    population identification
  233. 3 major factors alter allele frequencies and bring about most evolutionary change
    • NS
    • Genetic drift
    • Genetic flow
  234. describes how allele frequencies fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next
    genetic drift
  235. tends to reduce genetic variation through the losses of alleles
    genetic drift
  236. look up genetic drift and flow differences
  237. sudden reduction in population size due to a change in the environment
    bottleneck effect
  238. the resulting gene pool after the bottleneck effect may no longer be reflective of the original populations gene pool
  239. if a population after the bottle neck effect is small
    it may further undergo genetic drift
  240. 4 effects of genetic drift
    • significant in small populations
    • causes allele frequencies to change at random
    • lead to a loss of genetic variation within a population
    • cause harmful alleles to become fixed
  241. movement of alleles alomg populations
    gene flow
  242. how does gene flow happen
    alleles can be transferred through the movement of fertile individuals or gametes
  243. reduces variation among populations over time
    gene flow
  244. new genetic variation arise by chance
    beneficial alleles are sorted and favored by NS
  245. contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation
    relative fitness
  246. 3 modes of selection
    • directional
    • disruptive
    • stabilizing
  247. how does selection favor certain genotypes
    by acting on the phenotypes of certain
  248. favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
    directional selection
  249. favors individual at both extremes of the phenotypic range
    disruptive selection
  250. favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes
    stabilizing selection
  251. this occurs as the match between organisms and its environment increases
    adaptive evolution
  252. increases the frequencies of alleles that enhance survival and reproduction
  253. natural selection for mating success
    sexual selection
  254. competition among individuals of one sex for mates of the opposite sex
    intrasexual selection
  255. mate choice, when individuals of one sex are choosy in selecting their mates
    intersexual selection
  256. these are excreted by fungi to help digest the substrate into simpler compounds then be reabsorbed into the fungus
  257. are found in fungus and digest the compounds further into usable nutrients
  258. 7 features of fungi
    • eukaryotic
    • heterotrophic
    • multicellular
    • intracellular mit/mei
    • cell walls are chitin
    • store carbohydrates as glycogen and lipids
    • form spores
  259. 3 ecological roles of fungi
    • decomposers
    • pathogens
    • mutulaistic symbionts
  260. the vegetative bodies of most fungi are constructed of tiny filaments
  261. interwoven mat of hyphae
  262. hyphae that are chains of cells seperated by cross walls called
  263. fungi that lack septa (walls seperation)
  264. hyphae found in parasitic fungi
  265. nutrient absorbing hyphal tips that penetrate the tissue of the host
  266. a strong but flexible nitrogen containing polysaccharide that is composed of in fungi cell walls
  267. spores are produced by these 2 ways
    • sexually
    • asexually
  268. spores germinate to produce mycelia
  269. asexual spores are ____ as a result of _____
    sexual spores are the result of ______ and provide ____
    • clonal, mitotic
    • meiosis, genetic variation to the population
  270. sexual life cycles have these 2 processes
    • plasmogamy
    • karyogamy
  271. cytoplasmic fusion by the two parents of fungi
  272. fusion of their compatible haploid nuclei
  273. 5 phyla of fungi
    • chytridiomycota
    • basidiomycota
    • ascomycota
    • zygomycota
    • glomeromycota
  274. 3 features of chytrids
    • aquatic
    • unicellular
    • form limited coenocytic hyphae
  275. only group with true fungi with flagella
  276. are the most primitive fugni
  277. form thick walled,black, over-wintering structures are called _____. This fungi is called _____
    • zygosporangia
    • zygomycota
  278. zygosporangia contain _____ and are referred to as _____ ______
    • zygote
    • zygote fungi
  279. bread molds are formed from what fungi
  280. hyphae are coenocytic with septa found only in reproductive structures of this fungi
  281. in the asexual phase of rhizopus forms _____ develops into _______ at the tips of hyphae
    • haploid spores
    • sporangia
  282. form mutualistic symbiotic relationships with the roots of all plants
  283. form highly branched tree like structures inside the root cell of plants
  284. meiosis of ascomycetes produce
  285. asci form fruiting bodies called
  286. ascomycetes reproduce asexually by producing enormous numbers of asexual spores called
  287. asexual stage of ascomycetes are called
  288. the life cycle of a mushroom usually includes a long lived _____ ______ and a short lived _______
    • dikaryotic mycelium
    • basidiocarp
  289. saprobes
    saprotrophic fungi
  290. they obtain their nutrition from dead organic material or inorganic substrates
  291. they obtain their nutrition from living organisms
  292. primary role of fungi
  293. fungi live inside plants and animals as
  294. lichens exhibit what kind of mutalism with who
    fungi + green algae or cyanobacteria
  295. lichen with cyanobacteria are
    nitrogen fixer
  296. root of vascular plants or rhizoids of nonvascular plants
  297. how does mycorrhizae benefit in mutualism
    in receving photosynthates from the host
  298. protists are unicellular
  299. 4 features of diplomonads and parabasalids
    • lack/lost mitochondria
    • on phylogenic branch diverged earliest in eukaryotic history
    • with microsporidia was once called archaezoa
  300. 4 features of diplomonads
    • multiple flagella
    • two seperate nuclei
    • cytoskeleton
    • no mito or plastid
  301. example of diplomonad and its function
    • giardia lamblia
    • a parasite that infects the human intestine
  302. parabasalids example and function
    • trichomonas vaginalis
    • inhabits the vagina of the human
  303. euglenoids and the kinetoplastids are an example of what protist
  304. are both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic and all have flagella
  305. 4 features of euglenozoas
    • lack cell wall
    • glucose polymer as a storage molecule
    • chloroplast with 3 membrane
    • autotrophic or heterotrophic
  306. protist that are characterized by an anterior pocket from which one or two flagella emerge
  307. euglena feed by
    euglenoids feed by
    • autotrophic
    • heterotrophic
  308. have a single large mitochondrion associated with a unique organelle called a kinetoplast
  309. kinetoplast houses extracellular dna
  310. what is trypanosoma and how is it spread
    • african sleeping disease
    • spread by tsetse fly
  311. apicomplexans, ciliates, and dinoflagellate examples
  312. flagellated protists
    ciliated protist
    • dinoflagellates
    • apicocomplexans
    • ciliates
  313. members of alveolates belong to the clade
  314. small membrane bound cavities under the cell surface
  315. are parasites of animals and some cause serious human disease
  316. tiny infectious cells in alveolate parasites
  317. a diverse group that is named for their cilia to move and feed
  318. cilia live as solitary cells in freshwater
  319. cilia have 2 types of nuclei called
    • macronucleus
    • micronuclei
  320. reason for micronuclei in cilia
    sexual reproduction
  321. 2 reasons for macronucleus
    • carries copy of genome
    • controls everyday functions of the cells
  322. in a paramecium, the cilia along the oral groove is used for
    englufing via phagocytosis
  323. are abundant components of the phytoplankton that are suspended near the water surface
  324. 4 features of dinoflagellates
    • form the foundation of marine and freshwater food chains
    • single chloroplast and are hetertrophic
    • unicellular
    • 2 flagella (posterior/wrapped around the middle)
  325. the two flagella on dino produce a spinning movement
    has a characteristic chape reinforced by internal plates of cellulose
  326. how did dinoflagellates obtain their chloroplasts? red or green algae
    • secondary
    • tertiary endosymbiosis
  327. protist group that includes the fungus like water molds and the heterkont algae
  328. protist that are both hetero and photosynthetic protist
  329. 2 features of stramenopiles
    • hairlike projection on flagella
    • flagellated stage is motile
  330. heterotrophic stramenopiles
  331. oomycetes include 3
    • water mold
    • white rusts
    • mildew
  332. life cycle of oomycetes
    a large egg is fertilized by a smaller sperm nucleus forming a resistant zygote
  333. 2 parasites of plants and the diseases they caused (protists)
    • mildew, late potato blight
    • phyophthora,sudden oak death
  334. are called ray foot and have silica in their cell walls
  335. 4 features of radiolarians
    • silica in cell walls
    • planktonic
    • heterotrophic or symbiotic
    • freshwater/marine
  336. 3 features of entamoebas
    • unicellular
    • lack cell wall
    • pseudopodia to move and feed
  337. 3 features of of amoebozoans
    • inhabit freshwater and marine environments
    • free living hetertrophs
    • important parasites
  338. animal like and fungus like amoeboid lineages
  339. are considered slime molds or fungus animals
  340. are neither fungi nor animals but represent a distinct kingdom
  341. slime mold as sister to the fungi and animals
  342. two distinct lineages of slime mold
    • myxogastrida
    • dictyostelida
  343. brightly pigmented and heterotrophic organisms of slime molds
    plasmodial slime molds
  344. plasmodium phagocytes food particles
  345. protist straddle the line between individuality and multicellularity
    cellular slime molds