Chapter 4: Understanding Population

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Chapter 4: Understanding Population
2013-05-01 19:46:52

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  1. Population
    the totality of organisms of the same species occupying the same area at the same time
  2. Species
    group of individuals that can interbreed and produce viable offspring
  3. Population size
    # of individuals in a population
  4. Density
    # of individuals per unit area or volume
  5. Natality
    • Birth rate
    • Death rate
  6. birth rate
    the # of individuals added annually to the present population through reproduction per 1000 individuals
  7. death rate
    the # of individuals who die annually per 1000 individuals
  8. Natural Growth rate
    CBR-CDR= P*100= NGR
  9. Immigration
    when new individuals enter and reside within a population
  10. Emigration
    • or out-migration
    • happens when individuals leave the population
  11. Doubling time
    • = Total growth rate
    • the length of time it will take for a population to double in size
    • 70/Growth rate(ln%)
  12. Clumped type of dispersion
    • individuals grouped in clumps
    • found in nature
    • ex. moss, school of fish
  13. Uniform pattern of dispersion
    • individuals are evenly spaced
    • ┬árarely happens in nature
    • ex. phytoplankton
  14. Random type of dispersion
    • each individual is independent from the rest
    • more rare
  15. Sex ratio
    • # of male relative to # of females
    • irrelevant for some organisms
  16. Operational Sex ratio
    ratio of sexually receptive males to sexually receptive females
  17. productivity is linked to
    non pregnant people
  18. Age distribution
    the # of individuals in each stage of its life cycle
  19. Pre-productive
    larvae of insects, fingerling of tilapia, plant seedlings, babies
  20. Reproductive
    sexually mature insects, plants with flowers and fruits, chicks with period
  21. Post reproductive adults
    no longer capable of sexual reproduction such as annual/ biennial plants that have shed their seeds, tilapia that have spawned, women in menopause
  22. What would happen if there was an increase in:
    1. Pre-productive
    2. Post reproductive
    3. Reproductive
    • 1. rapid growth
    • 2. decline
    • 3. baby boom
  23. wider base
    needs a good support system to take care of young and old
    Guatemala, Saudi Arabia
    Rapid growth
  24. US, Aus, Canada
    Slow Growth
  25. Germany, Bulgaria, Sweden
    can't support oldies
    (-) Growth
  26. Spain, Austria, Greece
    base<-> same
    Zero Growth
  27. lag phase
    • low population density
    • adjust to the environment, no sexual maturity
    • acclimation and adjustment
  28. What is found on a typical growth curve?
    • lag
    • exponential
    • stationary
  29. exponential phase
    increase in # of individuals
  30. plateau phase
    competition and survival
  31. What shape is the growth curve of humans?
  32. optimal # of individuals that can survive in a specific area over time
    Carrying capacity
  33. What happens when the carrying capacity is exceeded?
    • population losses
    • availability of resources would decrease
  34. totality of the factors that would tend to limit the population

    all limiting factors
    environmental resistance
  35. What are the two reproductive strategies?

  36. larger animals which rear offsprings
    long life span, give birth to young
    limited by?
    • K-strategist
    • density-dependent factors
  37. Density dependent factors:
    • Density dependent factors:
    • 1. competition for resources
    • 2. territory
    • 3. crowding and stress
  38. smaller organisms
    produce large number of eggs and/ offsprings
    quantity over quality
  39. The population of the r-strategists reaches the carrying capacity. The population is limited by density dependent.
    F A L S E
  40. Density Independent factors:
    • 1.climate
    • 2.anthropogenic desruction
    • 3. natural disasters
  41. # of survivors:
    Type 1 flipped J
    Type 2 /
    Type 3 pabaliktad na J
    • Type 1: Late loss= loss is late @ the cycle
    • Type 2: Constant loss= same amt. of loss
    • Type 3: Early loss= R strategists
  42. Total Population Growth
    (CBR +Imm) -(CDR+ Em)
  43. Life expectancy
    average # of years an infant is expected to live
  44. Infant mortality Rate
    # of babies of every 1000 born annually that die before reaching ----
  45. Why are death rates lower in MDC than LDC?
    • Nutrition
    • Improved Sanitation
    • Medical and public health technology