EVSC 2050 Key Terms (Chapter 1)

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EVSC 2050 Key Terms (Chapter 1)
2013-05-01 20:54:45
introduction oceanography chapter

Key terms for EVSC 2050 Chapter 1
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  1. Pytheas
    • 350-300 BC
    • Greek navigator, geographer, astronomer
    • sailed from the Mediterranean to England, Scotland, Norway, Germany
    • recognized relationship between tides and the Moon
  2. Eratosthenes
    • 264-194 BC
    • Alexandrian, calculated the circumference of the Earth (40,250 km)
    • actual calculated value is 40,067 km
  3. Leif Eriksson
    • son of viking Erik Thorvaldsson (Erik the Red)
    • sailed west from Greenland to America in 1002
  4. Christopher Columbus
    • 1451-1506
    • four voyages across Atlantic Ocean looking for a new route to the East Indies
    • estimates of Earth's size were highly inaccurate
  5. Ferdinand Magellan
    • 1480-1521
    • sailed west from Spain (1519) searching for path to Spice Islands
    • passed through Strait of Magellan, rounded tip of South America (Nov. 1520)
    • arrived in Philippines March 1521, killed in battle
    • superior navigation skills greatly contributed to early charting of the oceans
  6. John Harrison
    • Yorkshire clockmaker, built 1st chronometer (1735)
    • 4th model (1761) proves to be highly accurate
    • Capt. James Cook uses chronometer to produce accurate charts of new areas
  7. Captain James Cook
    • 1728-79
    • three voyages to chart the Pacific Ocean (1768-1779)
    • 1st voyage (1768-71): circumnavigated globe, explored coasts of New Zealand and Australia
    • 2nd voyage (1772-75): explored South Pacific and Antarctic
    • 3rd voyage (1776-79): South Pacific, then north to discover Hawaiian Islands, Bering Strait
  8. Benjamin Franklin
    constructed 1769 Franklin-Folger chart of Gulf Stream
  9. Charles Darwin
    discovered coral reefs around sinking islands, formation of atolls
  10. Matthew Fontaine Maury
    extensive map collection, goal of creating better wind and current charts
  11. Challenger
    • vessel┬ácommissioned┬áby the Circumnavigation Committee of the British Royal Society
    • goal of scientific research, crew studied water samples, deep-water motion, sediment deposits
    • considered starting point of modern science of oceanography