Advanced Radiographic Imaging Study Guide
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What is myelography?
Term applied to examinations of the CNS and spinal canal
How are myelograms performed?
Injecting contrast into the subarachnoid space via lumbar puncture
Where in the lumbar spine do you inject for contrast for lumbar punctures?
Between L3 and L4
Why are myelograms done?
- It's diagnostic.
- It helps pin point areas that may be causing pain, or loss of mobility to the patient.
What is the most common contrast used for lumbar punctures?
Non-ionic water solbule organic iodine compounds
When is a myelogram contraindicated?
When a patient exhibits signs of intracranial pressure.
What is lumbar discography?
Injection technique that helps evaluates patients with back pain where other non-surgical techniques havent worked to pin point that area.
Commonly used for surgical planning before a lumbar fusion
Discograms are mainly for what?
More about determining if the disc is painful ratehr than the anatomy of the actual disc
What does Nuclear Medicine Technologists do?
Treatement via radiopharmaceuticals and tract pharmaceuticals in the patients body via certain equipment.
What does a radiation therapist technologist do?
Provide radiation therapry to patients prescribed by an oncologist. They also:
- - Review prescriptions
- - Act as liaison with physicians
- - Prepare equipment fro immobolization treatment
- - Etc.
What does medical sonographers do?
Uses specialized equipment to create images of structures inside the human body to make medical diagnosis.
What does a medcal dosimetrist do?
Responsible for providing radiation therapy using 3d model to figure out where/how to administer radiation.
What is AEC?
Device used to control lengt of na x-ray exposure.
What are phototimers?
Another way to describe AEC.
What are Ionization Chambers?
Automatic exposure control device that terminates exposure after a certain limits been reached.
What is minimum reaction time?
Time needed for AEC to respond to radiation and turn off the exposure.
What limit cant the back up timer exceed?
150% of the anticipated manual exposure mAs
What is cardiac angioplasty?
When you go in and try to open up a narrowed or totally obstructed vessel.
Who was the first to perform angioplasty?
What is PTCA? ( Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
Interventional Angioplasty that is usually applied to treatment of angina and mycoardial infarction.
Specifically used when coronary artery is narrowed or blocked due to deposition of cholesterol, plaque, etc.
What is inteventional radiology?
With a radiologists expertise in reading x-rays,ultrasound and etc. , they guide small intsruments through blood vessels/pathways to treat disease percutaneously (through hte skin)
What gave rise to interventional radiography?
Improved ability of radiologists to be able to see inside the body and be able to perform minimally invasive targeted treatments.
What is angiography?
Exam of arteries and veins to diagnose blockages.
What is balloon angioplasty?
Opens blocked/narrowed vessels by inserting a small baloon into the vessel and inflating it.
Describe biliary drainage and stenting.
Uses a stent (small mesh tube) to open up blocked ducts and allow bile to drain from the liver.
What is chemoembolization?
Delivering cancer-fighting agents directly to the site of a cancer tumor.
What is an embolization?
Delivery of clotting agents (coils,plastic particles, gelfoam etc.) to an area that is bleeding to block blood flow to that area.
Used in anuerysms and fibroid tumor of the uterus.
What is fallopian tube catheterization?
Uses a catheter to open blocked fallopian tubes without surgery.
What is a gastronomy tube?
When a tube is inserted straihgt into the stomach for patients who cant intake food by mouth.
What are needle biopsie's use dfor?
Diagnostic test for breast, lung and other cancers which is a cheaper alternative to surgical biopsy.
Describe radiofrequency ablation.
Uses radiofrequency energy to cook and kill cancerous tumors.
What is a stent?
small flexible tube used to hold open clogged blood vessels.
Describe a stent graft.
Reinforces a ruptured or balooning section of an artery.
Dissolving blood clots by injecting clot-busting drugs at the site of the clot.
What is DSA?
A computer assisted x-ray technique that subracts images of bone and soft tissue to permit viewing of the cardiovascular system.
Desribe TIPS ( Transjucular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt )
Life-saving procedure that improves blood flow and prevents hemmorhages in patients with severe liver dysfunction
Describe uterine artery embolization.
Embolziation procedure of uterine arteries to stop bleeidng that may potentially lead to hysterectomy.
What are physical principles of MRI?
Theory based on magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei where nucleons possess an angular momentum or spin on their axis.
The uneven atomic #'s causes these net spins because they are unbalanced.
They spin and protons align. Once aligned, they undergo a transition from one energy state to another known as resonance.
Which two ways do the nucleons spin in MRI?
- Parallel (spin up)
- ANtiparallel (spin down)
Describe the principles in parallel (spin-up)
Protons aligns WITH external applied magnetic field resulting in a lower energy state.
Describe the physicial principles of antiparallel (spin down)
Protons align in the OPPOSITE direction to the external appplied magnetic field and is usually a higher energy state.
What does vector represent?
Total magnetization of a group of nucleons aligned in either parallel or antiparallel.
What is excitation?
Process of supplying additional energy to the atoms.
Since the magnetic dipoles don't line up with the external magnetic field, it creates a motion in the nuclei that is similar to that of a spinnig top as it begins to slow down. It wobbles from its vertical axis to a cone shaped motion known as...
What is nuclear medicine?
Uses nuclear properties of matter in diagnosis and therapy
How does nuclear medicine work?
Patient is administered gamma ray emitting radionuclides that a computer system is able to count gamma photons via crystals in the Nuke med machine.
What is PET?
Positron emission tomography which is a diagnostic examination involving acquisition of physiologic images based on the detection of radition from the emission of positrons.
What is fusion imaging in nuclear medicine?
Combines functional studies with morphological ones.
What modalities are considered morphological?
CT and MR
What is considered functinal?
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