EVSC 2050 Key Terms (Chapter 13)

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EVSC 2050 Key Terms (Chapter 13)
2013-05-01 22:34:07
evsc 2050 key terms chapter 13

Key terms for Introduction to Oceanography (Chapter 13).
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  1. United Nations Commission on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
    • Law of the Sea Treaty (April 1982)
    • UN sea bed authority would license private companies to mine in tandem with a UN company
    • limited quantities removed, shared profits
  2. Antarctic Treaty
    • partitioned Antarctica between several nations
    • also partitioned that surrounding ocean ecosystems
  3. dead zone
    • hypoxic (low-oxygen) area
    • forms off mouth of MI River
    • caused by introduction of nitrates from fertilizers
    • oxygen levels ~0.5 ppm or less (normal around 12 ppm)
    • fertilizers cause algae bloom, excess are not consumed and die
    • bacteria consume dead algae and use up all the oxygen
  4. Exxon Valdez
    • March 1989
    • Exxon Valdez carrying 170,000 metric tons of oil, ran aground 40 km outside of Valdez, AK
    • 35,000 metric tons spilled into Prince William Sound
  5. Exclusive Economic Zone
    area of surrounding ocean established by UNCLOS where nations have exclusive economic control (initially 200 miles, extended in 1994 after US refuses to endorse UNCLOS)
  6. double-hulled tankers
    • proposed oil tanker model where each hull has two layers
    • this would reduce the likelihood of an oil spill occurring
    • if one hull gets punctured, the other remains intact
  7. corexit
    • special kind of soap designed to remove oil from the ocean
    • actually binded to the oil, making it soluble and distributing it throughout more of the ocean
    • increases toxicity of an oil spill
  8. radioactive wastes
    • mercury, cadmium, lead
    • Minamata disease in Japan caused by radioactive sewage being dumped into the ocean