Circulation

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hannahshort
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217175
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Circulation
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2013-05-08 01:31:07
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Circulation respiratory digestive
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A&P final.
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  1. percent of blood in veins
    70%
  2. what is significant about the pulmonary artery and vein?
    • only artery that carries deoxygenated blood
    • only vein that carries oxygenated blood
  3. intercalated discs
    • only in heart
    • lie between each muscle cell
    • provide stability
    • allow rapid transmission of nerve impulse from one cell to another throughout the tissue
  4. purkinje fibers
    • control speed of transmission within cardiac muscle
    • help coordinate muscle contraction
  5. major transport medium of the body
    blood
  6. blood is what percent of body weight in cats and dogs?
    9%

    (7%-plasma 2%-corpuscles/cells)
  7. blood's purpose
    • carries nutrients, oxygen, and water to tissues
    • moves waste products to the organs responsible for their elimination/excretion 
    • circulation of hormones&enzymes
    • helps maintain body temp
  8. plasma is slightly alkaline with a pH of approximately
    7.4

    90% water
  9. constituents of plasma
    • mineral salts (NaCl, calcium carbonate, potassium phosphate)
    • plasma proteins (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen)
    • dissolved gases (O2, CO2,Nitrogen)
    • waste products (urea, creatinine)
    • nutrients (glucose, amino acids)

    varying levels of antibodies, hormones,& enzymes depending on the physiological status of the animal
  10. RBC counted in the
    millions

    (5-7 million)
  11. WBC counted in the
    thousands

    • dog: 11,000
    • cat: 13,000
    • horse: 9,000
  12. in a bacterial infection WBC are
    HIGH

    (viral infection: WBC low)
  13. the 7 diff types of cells in blood can be considered in these 3 groups
    • erythrocytes (RBC)
    • thrombocytes (platelets)
    • leukocytes (WBC)
  14. leukocytes further divided into
    • granulocytes
    • agranulocytes
  15. granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
  16. agranulocytes (absence of granules in cytoplasm)
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  17. red blood cells have no
    nucleus

    (so can carry more oxygen)
  18. function of RBC
    transport oxygen from lungs to tissues of the body and carry carbon dioxide back to lungs
  19. hemoglobin allows
    RBCs to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide 
  20. oxyhemoglobin
    in the lungs, oxygen in the inspired air combines with hemoglobin in the erythrocyte form to form this compound
  21. the efficiency of oxygen transport is directly dependent upon
    the number of circulating erythrocytes and the amount of hemoglobin that each cell contains
  22. RBC lifespan
    • cat- 120 days
    • dog- 110

    then broken down primarily by spleen
  23. main functions of spleen
    • white pulp: destroys lymphocytes
    • red pulp: produces lympophcytes
  24. how can an animal still function without its spleen?
    other sites also breakdown erythrocytes (liver, bone marrow)
  25. iron from the breakdown process of erythrocytes is stored in the ? for re-use
    liver

    (remaining components converted into bile and excreted in feces)
  26. smallest blood cells
    thrombocytes

    (non-nucleated)
  27. thrombocytes primary function
    assits with hemostasis (blood clotting)
  28. largest cells, although less numerous
    leukocytes (WBC)
  29. scientific name for granulocytes
    polymorphonuclear leukocytes
  30. group of cells most numerous among leukocytes
    granulocytes (the 3 phils)

    approx 70% of WBC count
  31. most numerous of the granulocytes
    neutrophils

    (difficult to stain; hence neutral)
  32. granulocyte capable of diapedesis&accumulate rapidly where there is infection
    neutrophil

    (phagocytosis)
  33. 2-4% of total WBC population
    eosinophils
  34. these cells increase in response to parasite infection or allergy attack
    esoinophils
  35. least common of granulocytes
    basophils

    (1% of total WBC count)
  36. basophils manufacture
    histamine and heparin

    (released at the site of injury to promote inflammation)
  37. shock is
    vasodilation and reduced cardiac output (low blood pressure)
  38. 20-30% of total WBC count
    lymphocytes
  39. lymphocytes produced in
    lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue of spleen, liver, and other organs
  40. 2 types of lymphocytes
    • B-lymphocytes (antibodies)
    • T-lymphocytes
  41. immune response based on the production of antibodies
    humoral immunity
  42. What do B-lymphocytes or B cells do?
    When activated, they produce and secrete the specific antibody for the invading antigen.

    (short-lived immunity)
  43. 2 types of active immunity
    • humoral immunity/ B-cell immunity
    • cellular immunity/ T-cell immunity
  44. What do T-Lymphocytes or T cells do?
    attack and destroy the invading cells directly

    • (long-lived immunity)
    • (primarily surface)
  45. largest of leukocytes
    monocytes
  46. 5-10% of total WBC count
    monocytes
  47. phagocytic, enter tissue at site of injury to engulf foreign objects that are too large for neutrophils
    monocytes
  48. promote inflammation
    basophils
  49. these 2 types of cells phagocytize
    • neutrophils
    • monocytes
  50. increase in # in response to parasite infection or allergy attack
    eosinophils
  51. monocytes have different names depending on where they are in the body:
    • tissues: macrophages
    • liver: kupfer cells
    • CNS: histocytes
  52. production of just blood cells
    hemopoiesis
  53. all the blood cells originate from one cell in the bone marrow with the exception of
    lymphocytes that originate from lymph nodes, spleen, liver, etc.
  54. production of RBC
    erythropoiesis

    (occurs in red bone marrow)
  55. What is anemia?
    Anemia is a reduction in the total RBC count&/or a reduction in the hemoglobin concentration.
  56. what must be in RBC in order to carry oxygen or CO2?
    hemoglobin
  57. erythropoiesis requires
    amino acids, vit C, B6, B12, iron, and folic acid

    (if any are deficient in diet of the animal, symptoms of anemia may develop)
  58. major hormone effecting erythropoiesis
    erythropoietin
  59. mammals have no nucleus in their RBC to
    carry more Oxygen and CO2

    (reptiles&avian do)
  60. erythropoietin is produced in the
    kidneys in response to a fall in the circulating levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxia)
  61. formation of thrombocytes
    thrombopoiesis

    occurs in bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes (precursors for thrombocytes)
  62. thrombopoetin
    peptide hormone secreted in the kidneys that controls the rate of thrombopoiesis by stimulating the production of megakaryocytes
  63. leukopoiesis
    production of leukocytes

    occurs in bone marrow
  64. what is the significance of progenitor cells?
    they differentiate to produce all the different types of leukocytes except lymphocytes
  65. *name the 4 common lymphoid tissues
    • spleen
    • thymus
    • liver
    • lymph nodes
  66. lymphopoiesis (formation of lymphocytes) occurs primarily within the lymphoid tissues of the
    • spleen
    • thymus
    • liver
    • lymph nodes
  67. in the immature animal, the thymus produces hormones known as
    thymosins

    • assist in maintaining the required number of T-lymphocytes
    • in the adult, production is related to exposure to antigens
  68. not usually found after maturation
    thymus 

    (in immature animals bc thats when developing immune system)
  69. hemostasis
    the stopping of a flow of blood
  70. initial response in hemostasis
    localized constriction of smooth muscle surrounding vessel that slows, or may even stop blood flow at the damaged site

    endothelial cells lining the vessels become 'sticky' and platelets adhere to their surface (platelet adhesion) forming "platelet plug" usually occurs within 15 sec
  71. what type of memory do T-lymphocytes have? B?
    • T-long memory (skin)
    • B-short memory (distemper, rabies, corona virus)
  72. vasoconstriction is brought on by which receptors?
    alpha 1
  73. *explain clotting (essay)
    When thromboplastin enters the plasma, the enzyme thrombokinase is formed, which converts prothrombin into thrombin. Thrombin then converts the plasma protein fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin which is sticky and traps thrombocytes forming the blood clot.

    always in the blood: prothrombin, fibrinogen, thrombocytes
  74. blood should clot within:
    • dog/cat: 3-5 min
    • horse: 5-15
  75. average measurement of blood (mm)
    17 mm of mercury
  76. clear liquid at top of tube
    • in purple tube: plasma
    • in red tube: serum
  77. both necessary for hemostasis
    calcium ions and vitamin K

    • Ca: formation of thromboplastin
    • K: 4 clotting factors, including prothrombin

    deficiency of either will impair clotting
  78. fibrinolysis
    process where the clot gradually dissolves as the wound heals

    the fibrin that formed the clot is broken down by the enzyme plasmin or fibrinase produced by plasminogen, the inactive form that circulates within the plasma and body fluids. 
  79. DEA
    Dog Erythrocyte Antigen

    or Canine Erythrocyte Antigens

    8 types
  80. 8 types of canine blood groups
    • DEA-1 (A1)
    • DEA-2 (A2)
    • DEA-3 (B)
    • DEA-4 (C)
    • DEA-5 (D)
    • DEA-6 (F)
    • DEA-7 (Tr)
    • DEA-8 (He)
  81. most common canine blood group
    DEA 4&6 (98%)
  82. least common canine blood group
    DEA-3 (B)
  83. most reactive canine blood group
    DEA 1 and 2
  84. random transfusions should be avoided bc:
    • risk sensitization&subsequent severe transfusion reactions (must give their blood type next time)
    • transfused RBCs will have shortened life
  85. 2 ways of transfusion
    • through the vein (preferred)
    • intraperitoneal (50% die, other 50% shortened lifespan)
  86. most common feline blood type (also most dangerous)
    A
  87. feline blood types of more importance bc 
    • existence of strong preformed isoantibodies
    • no universal donor in cats

    (type B cats receiving A may have fatal reaction after only 1 mL of incompatible blood. type A receiving B milder reaction)
  88. universal feline recipient
    Type AB
  89. quickest way to loose fluid (hypovolemia)
    • diarrhea (loosing sodium)
    • vomitting (loosing chlorine) 

    (give normal saline bc has sodium&chloride in it)
  90. how many lbs in a kg?
    2.2 lbs in 1 kg
  91. formula of how much blood to give
    Vol= %increase X weight of animal X 1.7=mL

    • Ex: 5 kg cat with PCV 14% (want 20%)
    • 6% X 5 X 1.7= 51.0 mL of blood
  92. standard rate of admin (cat)
    10mL/Kg/Hr

    hypovolemic cat- 60mL/Kg/Hr
  93. capillary beds
    where the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and carbon dioxide occurs
  94. layers of the heart from inside, out
    • endocardium
    • myocardium
    • epicardium
    • pericardial cavity
    • serous pericardium
    • parietal pericardium
  95. Lub
    AV valves close as ventricles contract
  96. Dub
    semi-lunar valves close as pulmonary artery and aorta contract
  97. major artery that supplies the body with blood
    aorta
  98. which ventricle pumps blood to the lungs?
    right

    in the lungs, exchange of oxygen and CO2 occurs and oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium before being pumped around the body
  99. why is the right ventricle wall thinner?
    force of contraction required to pump blood the shorter distance to the lungs (pulmonary circulation) is less than that needed to get all around the body (left ventricle leads to aorta-major artery supplying body)
  100. systole vs diastole
    systole- contracting

    diastole- relaxing/filling
  101. AV valves closed
    • atria filling (D)
    • AV valves closed
    • ventricles contracting (S)
    • semilunar valves open
    • pulmonary artery&aorta filling (D)
  102. two parts of circulation
    • pulmonary circulation (to lungs) Right
    • systemic circulation (to body) Left
  103. BP top/bottom
    • top- systolic pressure
    • bottom- diastolic pressure

    120/80
  104. pulmonary circulation
    deoxygenated blood pumped from R side of heart to lungs in the pulmonary arteries. blood is oxygenated at the lungs before being returned to the heart in the pulmonary vein. 
  105. exceptions to artery/vein rule
    • pulmonary artery&vein
    • umbilical artery
  106. systemic circulation
    blood from L side of heart to the body tissues, via arteries and capillaries where it becomes deoxygenated before returning to the R side of the heart in veins.
  107. cardiac muscle
    • contact between cells via intercalated discs allows cells to contract simultaneously (heart appears to act like one large muscle)
    • does not fatigue following repeated contractions
    • rhythmic contraction without any nerve supply (automaticity)
  108. heart failure R vs L
    R- tricuspid problem due to heartworms (blood backs up into liver)

    L- mitral valve insufficiency (blood backs up into lungs "pulmonary edema")
  109. How to know if in R/L ventricle?
    • R- thinner wall
    • restrictor bands


    L- thicker wall
  110. dilated heart could be from
    • overworked
    • heartworms
    • (anything that really works the heart)
  111. function of heart valves
    preventing blood flowing in the wrong direction as the heart chambers contract
  112. atrio-ventricular valves
    • mitral valve
    • tricuspid vale

    function: prevent blood flowing back into the atria as ventricles contract
  113. papillary muscles
    attach to the chordae tendinae, contract and prevent the cusps of the valves being pushed back into the atria
  114. semi-lunar/arterial valves
    • pulmonary valve
    • aortic valve

    function: prevent flow of blood into the ventricles following systole
  115. congenital defects (valves)
    • present at birth
    • something happened between conception and birth to cause this

    • pulmonic stenosis
    • aortic stenosis (narrowing in valvular region)
  116. acquired valvular defects
    develop with age

    valve incompetence or valvular insufficiency-cusps of valves thicken and loose their elasticity causing valve to leak
  117. most common valve disease
    mitral valve disease

    usually first evident- general slowing down during exercise accompanied by breathlessness

    start to cough, if left untreated will progress into heart failure, as the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood around the body

    blood accumulates in the left atrium and may flow back into the lungs, causing pulmonary congestion, leads to pulmonary edema and dyspnea
  118. *Renin-Angiotensin System
    • Blood goes through kidneys, kidneys measure
    • BP drops below certain pressure, detected by Juxtaglomerular cell which in response releases Renin
    • Renin takes Angiotensinogen and converts it to Angiotensin I
    • Angiotensin I converted to Angiotensin II by Angiotensin Conversion Enzyme (ACE)
    • Angiotensin II goes to the adrenal gland and causes the outer layer (zona glomerulosa) to release Aldosterone
    • Aldosterone goes to kidney to cause absorption of Na
    • So goes Sodium, so goes water: as Na is absorbed, water comes with it increasing the volume of blood thereby raising BP

    Once BP increased, circulates (60 sec) to kidney, where it is measured, once normal, kidney will stop releasing Renin (negative feedback)
  119. maintain blood pressure through the
    renin-angiotensin system
  120. treatment of mitral valve disease
    Enacard- ACE inhibitor. functions by blocking the conversion of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II
  121. Angiotensinogen produced by the
    liver

    (always in blood)
  122. non-propietary 
    generic name
  123. tricuspid disease
    • right side heart failure due to dirofilaria immitis 
    • blood backs up in the vena cava (hyperemia) resulting in blood hyperstasis in the liver with liver failure and ascites in the latter stages
  124. most common heart disease that affects great danes
    dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)
  125. dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)
    • muscular wall of the heart becomes thin and lose ability to contract effectively
    • etiology unknown
    • more common in large breeds
  126. myocardial infarction (heart attack in humans)
    • does not occur frequently in animals
    • acute myocardial ischemia (blockage) is often secondary to other cardiac diseases, such as aortic stenosis, endocarditis, cardiomyopathy, or neoplasia

    blood not getting to cardiac muscle which begins to die
  127. endocarditis
    • bacterial infection of endocardium
    • usually involving a valve
    • in dogs, most common affected valve-mitral
  128. systole
    • contraction
    • depolarization
  129. diastole
    • relaxation
    • repolarization
  130. depolarization
    systole
  131. repolarization
    diastole
  132. 2 phases of ECG of contraction and relaxation
    • contraction- depolarization
    • relaxation- repolarization
  133. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    • most common heart disease of cats
    • disease of the myocardium
    • left ventricular walls become thickened (hypertrophied) while the left ventricular chamber decreases in size
    • clots form and break loose lodging in the iliac arteries with hind limb paresis
  134. stimulate vagus nerve
    slow everything down bc parasympathetic nerve
  135. the medulla receives feedback from 
    • baroreceptors/pressoreceptors- measure pressure
    • chemoreceptors- measure chemical composition of the blood
  136. should there be a fall in BP or circulating levels of Oxygen, or an increase in circulating levels of CO2..
    the cardiac center stimulates the heart to increase its output

    this leads to an increase in BP and Oxygen content of the blood, with a corresponding decrease in the circulating levels of CO2
  137. electrocardiogram
    • measures the electrical activity of the heart
    • assessment of hearts ability to conduct impulses
  138. function of glossopharyngeal
    connects carotid sinus to respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the hindbrain
  139. Heartbeat and Conduction
    • initial stimulus- spontaneously in SA node(located in right atrium)
    • wave of depolarization spreads across L&R atria as they contract, emptying their contents into ventricles
    • upon reaching AV node(located in septum) wave of depolarization travels along bundle of his, spreading along purkinjie fibers
    • ventricles contract, pumping blood into pulmonary artery&aorta to circulate to the pulmonary&systemic circuits

    • sympathetic&parasympathetic can modify heartbeat (frequency&force of contraction)
    • central area of control in medulla oblongata-receives/processes information from parasympathetic/sympathetic areas of hypothalamus

    medulla receives feedback from baroreceptors&chemoreceptors-telling heart to either increase/decrease cardiac output
  140. vasoconstriction vs. vasodilation
    • constriction- heart beat up
    • respirations up
    • BP up

    • dilation- heart beat down
    • respirations down
    • BP down
  141. too much CO2/ O2
    • CO2- increase respiration to balance it out
    • O2- we will cause vasodilation&reduced cardiac output
  142. horses have reversed
    QRS complex
  143. "double P"
    common heart murmur in thoroughbred horses
  144. period between beginning of P wave and beginning of QRS complex
    PR interval- indicates how long it takes the impulse to travel through the AV node
  145. AV or 1st degree heart block
    impulse takes too long to get through and never reaches the ventricles

    (PR interval will be increased)
  146. P wave is too tall can indicate:
    right atrial enlargement (p-pulmonale)
  147. P wave is too wide can indicate:
    left atrial enlargement (p-mitale)
  148. tall R wave or widened QRS complex may suggest:
    left ventricular enlargement
  149. deep S wave may suggest:
    right ventricular enlargement
  150. no P waves=
    massive block
  151. P-wave represents
    depolarization

    and subsequent contraction of the atria
  152. P-wave is followed by the
    QRS complex

    (as the action potential is spread down the bundle of his to the purkinje fibers and the ventricles depolarize and contract)
  153. T-wave
    repolarization

    (recovery of ventricles prior to the commencement of another heartbeat)
  154. QRS Complex
    depolarization of ventricles
  155. arrhythmias
    rhythms too slow or too fast

    • heart rate too slow-heart cannot pump adequate amount of blood to meet body's needs
    • heart rate too fast-heart cannot fill with blood adequately and pumping function of the heart will be abnormal
  156. slow heart rate
    bradyarrhythmia
  157. fast heart rate
    tachyarrhythmia 
  158. Starling's Law
  159. what animal has a sinus arrhythmia?
    dog

    (inhale-heart slows down, exhale-heart speeds up)
  160. disturbances in the heartrate
    dysrhythmias
  161. contained within the tissue, site of all chemical and gaseous exchange between interstitial fluid and blood
    capillaries
  162. tunica adventitia
    • outer layer of arteries/veins
    • formed from collagen and elastic fibers
    • protects the vessel
  163. tunica media
    • middle layer of arteries/veins
    • contains smooth muscle&elastic fibers
    • innervated by sympathetic, can contract or relax to control amount of blood flowing through vessel
  164. tunia intima
    • inner layer of arteries/veins
    • single layer elastic fiber&flattened endothelial cells
    • smooth surface for circulation
  165. blood pressure range
    79-97
  166. wall is thicker but actual opening is smaller
    arteries
  167. smooth muscle of arterial wall innervated by sympathetic, when stimulated, contraction of the muscle causes
    vasoconstriction

    conversely, when the smooth muscle relaxes causes vasodilation
  168. brachiocepahlic trunk branches into
    • left and right common carotid arteries &
    • right subclavian artery
  169. supplies the fore limbs
    left and right subclavian arteries 
  170. form the jugular groove
    • sternocephalicus
    • brachiocephalicus
  171. tunica media thinner in
    veins

    (have less elastic fibers, therefore, less stretchability than arteries)
  172. advantages of using vein vs artery
    • more accessible
    • thinner walls
    • consequences of damaging less severe (damage to artery may compromise blood supply to several tissues/organs)
    • less chance of hematoma bc not under pressure like arteries
  173. major veins that return blood to the heart
    cranial and caudal vena cavae
  174. drains blood from intercostal spaces of thorax and thoracic wall
    azygous vein
  175. hepatic portal vein
    carries absorbed products of digestion from intestine to the liver for detoxification
  176. smallest of blood vessels and form network between arterial and venous systems
    capillaries
  177. formed from single layer of flattened epithelial cells (no tunica media or tunica externa)
    cappillaries
  178. pre-capillary sphincters of smooth muscle
    • surround beginning of each capillary
    • contract or relax to decrease/increase the flow of blood through the capillary as needed
  179. the heart is innervated by the 
    autonomic nervous system
  180. activity in the parasympathetic division, primarily the vagus nerve (X) causes the heart to
    SLOW, in addition to decreasing the force of contraction.

    this combined effect reduces cardiac output
  181. sympathetic division causes
    increased heart rate, accompanied by an increased force of contraction.

    this increases the cardiac output
  182. bruised vagus nerve
    causes stimulation to vagus (parasympathetic) so slows heart down 

    (dog kicked in neck=40 BPM)
  183. cardiac output
    volume of blood pumped by the heart in a given time (60 sec)
  184. cardiac output formula
    cardiac output= stroke vol X heart rate


    Ex: 10 mL X 180 BPM= 1800 mL/minute
  185. stroke volume out of which ventricle?
    Left
  186. define blood pressure
    force that the blood exerts upon the blood vessels 

    (greatest in the aorta-starts high in aorta and decreases to low as the blood finally enters the heart at the right auricle)
  187. systolic pressure coincides with
    ventricular contraction
  188. diastolic pressure coincides with
    ventricular relaxation
  189. increase heart rate, stroke volume
    decreases
  190. alpha 1 receptors
    vasoconstriction 
  191. beta 1 receptors
    cause increase in metabolism of cells causing an increase in heart rate and force of contraction
  192. beta 2 receptors
    bronchodilation=ease of respiration
  193. sites for pulse in dog and cat
    • femoral
    • cranial tibial
    • brachial (bird)
    • ulnar/carpal artery
    • coccygeal (cow)
    • carotid
    • sub-lingual (pigs)
  194. within medulla oblongata are 2 vital centers, cardiac&vasomotor center, together:
    cardiovascular centers

    • cardiac center: 2 regions
    • one causes acceleration of heart rate via sympathetic, one causes deceleration via parasympathetic 

    • vasomotor: 2 regions
    • one causes vasoconstriction
    • one causes vasodilation
  195. within medulla oblongata
    • Cardiovascular Centers
    •     1. cardiac center- 2 regions
    • a)accelerate heart via sympathetic
    • b) decelerate heart via parasympathetic
    •     2. vasomotor center (control vessel width)
    • a)vasoconstriction
    • b)vasodilation

    • *all based on pressure, O2, or CO2
    • (pressure or chemical content of arterial blood)
  196. vasomotor center
    • baroreceptors located in carotid sinus and aortic sinus detect the degree of stretch of the vessel wall.
    • gives feedback about level of BP, allowing cardiac output and peripheral resistance to be adjusted accordingly
  197. chemoreceptors
    detect O2 or CO2 concentration (chemical content of the blood)
  198. analeptic
    makes aortic arch and carotid sinus receptors more sensitive to CO2 concentrations (will make the animal breathe)

    Ex: Doxapram (non-propietary)
  199. chemoreceptors located in the
    carotid and aortic bodies
  200. angiotensinogen is an inactive plasma protein produced by the 
    liver
  201. renin secreted by the
    kidney
  202. angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) secreted by the
    lungs
  203. 4 major effects of angiotensin II
    • stimulates secretion of Aldosterone *water retention&we can control easily*
    • stimulates secretion of antidiuretic hormone (increases water retention by kidneys)
    • stimulates thirst
    • vasoconstrictor (reducing blood flow to periphery to ensure blood flow to vital organs)
  204. give to slow heart down
    digitalis 
  205. takes fluids out of tissues
    diuretics
  206. shock is 
    vasodilation and reduced cardiac output.
  207. loss of circulating blood %
    • less than 10%- few signs
    • 25%- tachycardia, mild-moderate hypotension
    • 40% or greater- severe hypotension, may not recover if treatment not carried out w/in 2 hrs
  208. circulatory shock usually occurs in response to
    severe hemorrhage, such as that caused by injury during a hit by car, ruptured splenic tumor, other internal bleeding or severe burns
  209. most common type of shock
    hypovolemic (decreased vol of circulating blood in the body)
  210. some signs of shock
    • pale mucous membranes with slow CRT
    • extremities cold to the touch
    • low BP
    • increased heart rate with a rapid weak pulse
    • may appear depressed
  211. 3 phases of shock
    • compensatory shock
    • progressive shock
    • irreversible shock
  212. compensatory shock
    all arterioles except coronary and cerebral vessels constrict to maintain arterial pressure and adequate circulation

    • B1- heart faster&stronger
    • B2- dilate coronary&cerebral vessels while dilating bronchioles
    • A1-constrict peripheral vessels of skin&intestines
  213. progressive shock
    heart cannot pump enough blood for adequate coronary circulation resulting in decreased cardiac output. lack of blood to the brain damages respiratory center causing vasodilation and the shock cycle continues
  214. irreversible shock
    • treatment at this point is of no value bc heart damage is irreparable
    • capillaries become too permeable and death results within short time
  215. pulse oximeter
    SPO2 (measurement of oxygen attached to hemoglobin) and pulse

    • normal SPO2= 95
    • pulse 60-120
  216. blood pressure monitor
    blood pressure (79-97 mm Hg)
  217. if catch shock at progressive phase:
    • indwelling catheter in vein
    • lactated ringers
    • animal on heating pad
    • elevate feet-blood flow w/ gravity back to heart
    • give soludelta cortef or dexamethasone phosphate to conceal dilating vessels and allow to contsrict&stop anymore loss of plasma
  218. crystalloid fluids (water like)
    administered to restore circulating blood vol.

    • normal saline (0.9%)
    • lactated ringers
    • hartmann's solution
    • dextrose, etc

    longer shelf life
  219. colloid solution (syrup like)
    beneficial to administer before crystalloids to reduce amount of crystalloids needed

    • plasma
    • dextran

    • remain in circulatory system longer
    • short shelf life
    • expensive
  220. milder cases of shock
    • IV fluid replacement may not be necessary
    • oral fluids containing electrolytes
  221. angio-neurotic edema
    swollen muzzle from allergic reaction to vaccine

    treat with soludelta cortef (swelling down so can breathe again)

    (leptospirosis- not a virus; bacterin=bacteria will cause shock reaction)
  222. shock cycle
    • cause of shock
    • histamine release
    • vasodilation of capillaries
    • increased capillary permeability
    • blood plasma moves from blood into tissue
    • decrease blood vol&pressure
    • reduce blood flow
    • histamine release
    • vasodilation to reduce friction on blood flow
    • etc...
  223. name 4 lymphoid tissues
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • thymus
    • liver
  224. function of lymphatics
    • trash away from body
    • protect body (antibodies)

    drains tissue fluid (lymph)
  225. lymph nodes
    • filter out infections (when does they swell up)
    • defense against infection by harboring lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages
  226. lymph node is divided into 3 parts (outside-in)
    • cortex (produces B-lymphocytes)
    • paracortex (produces T-lymphocytes)
    • medulla (accumulation of plasma cells)
  227. make up the immune system
    • B-lymphocytes
    • T-lymphocytes
    • plasma cells
  228. lymph is delivered by 
    afferent lymph vessels entering the subscapular sinus and is filtered through the cortex, paracortex, and medulla, to emerge finally at the hilus, then efferent lymphatic vessels emerge and carry the lymph out
  229. spleen
    • located on left side
    • lymphoid organ associated with circulatory system
    • attached to the stomach by gastrosplenic ligament
    • one of primary producers of lymphocytes
  230. spleen's make-up
    • parenchyma (tissue cells) of spleen:
    • red pulp- engorged w RBC at the end of their life
    • white pulp-B&T lymphocytes in abundance
  231. RBC life in dog
    120 days
  232. spleen function
    • immunologic functions
    • storage area for RBC
    • worn-out RBC iron is stored here

    not essential organ, its functions can be carried out by other organs but will be susceptible to parasite blood cell infections
  233. organ of immature animals
    thymus
  234. thymus
    where T&B lymphocytes go to get specific duties
  235. tonsils
    • 6 total: 3 on each side
    • lack afferent lymphatic vessels, relying on their proximity to the epithelial surface to make contact with antigens
  236. job of respiratory system
    O2 to tissues and CO2 away from tissues
  237. external respiration
    inspiration and the diffusion of oxygen from the air sacs (alveoli of lungs) into the blood and CO2 from the blood into the air sacs
  238. internal respiration
    diffusion of gases between the blood and tissues of the body
  239. anemia
    reduction in number of erythrocytes and/or reduction of hemoglobin
  240. hemoglobin
    • what oxygen attaches to
    • made of heme- iron (yellow) and globin-protein

    HgG =12.5 g/mL
  241. ratio of O2 to CO2
    • inspired air: 500/1
    • expired air: 4/1
  242. trachea splits into
    bronchi>bronchioles>alveoli
  243. alar fold
    • bulbous enlargement that attaches to the wing of the nostril
    • functions to cause turbulence of air entering the nasal chamber to ensure the air is warmed, moistened, and filtered prior to entering the rest of the respiratory tract
  244. turbinates
    • highly vascular (to warm air as it comes in)
    • lined with ciliated (to grab particles) mucous epithelial tissue to increase the surface area
  245. pharynx considered in 3 regions
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  246. nasopharyngeal region
    • continuous from nasal chambers
    • lined with ciliated
    • eustachian tube from middle ear opens up here, to permit equilibration of the pressure on either side of tympanic membrane
    • separated from rest of the pharynx by the soft palate
  247. oropharynx
    • below soft palate
    • contains folds of lymphoid tissue known as tonsils
    • lined with striated epithelial tissue to resist friction caused during swallowing
  248. laryngopharynx
    forms caudal part of pharynx and leads to larynx
  249. larynx
    • cranial end of trachea
    • composed of muscle&fibrocartilage
    • vocalization
  250. make up what we commonly refer to as the larynx
    • thyroid cartilage
    • arytenoid cartilage
    • cricoid cartilage
    • epiglottis
  251. extreme red color of mucous membranes
    hyperemia 
  252. trachea rings made of what type of cartilage?
    hyaline cartilage

    (space in rings lie at the points where the esophagus expands during swallowing!)
  253. carina
    ridge that marks the point of division of the trachea into bronchi
  254. bronchodilation
    • caused by increased activity in sympathetic
    • increases amount of air available
    • preparing animal for "fight-or-flight"
  255. bronchoconstriction
    • result of activity in parasympathetic
    • reduces diameter of airways
    • may occur in allergic reactions
  256. septal cells
    • secrete surfactant
    • covers entire alveolar surface and reduces surface tension, preventing their collapse
  257. left lung has how many lobes? right?
    • left- 3
    • right- 4
  258. pulmonary pleura/visceral pleura
    serous membranes that covers the lungs
  259. parietal pleura
    serous membranes that line the thoracic cavity
  260. pleural fluid
    thin, watery, fluid acts as lubricant preventing friction between membranes as lungs inflate/deflate
  261. 2 processes of respiration
    • inspiration (inhalation)
    • expiration (exhalation)

    *1 inspiration&1expiration=1 respiration
  262. most common sign noted in depth of anesthesia
    respiration
  263. during inspiration the diaphragm is
    • flat (pulling air in flattens it out)
    • muscle of diaphragm are contracting
    • increases length&vol of thoracic cavity
  264. during expiration the diaphragm is
    • domed (dome pushing air up&out)
    • muscle of diaphragm are relaxing (dome is resting shape of diaphragm)
    • decreases vol of thorax
  265. spirometer
    measures volume of air held in the lungs during the respiratory process
  266. tidal volume (TV)
    vol of air breathed in or out during respiration at rest
  267. vital capacity (VC)
    • ERV+IRV+TV
    • maximum vol of air that can be inhaled and exhaled
  268. expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
    total vol of air that can be voluntarily expired following normal breathing
  269. residual volume (RV)
    vol of air remaining in lungs following maximum exhalation
  270. inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
    vol of air that can be inhaled, above the tidal volume
  271. inspiratory capacity
    • TR+IRV
    • vol of air that can be inhaled following quiet respiration
  272. functional residual capacity (FRC)
    • ERV+RV
    • vol of air in lungs after completion of a cycle of quiet respiration
  273. total lung capacity
    • VC+RV
    • total vol of the lungs
  274. pneumothorax
    • air in pleural cavity
    • results in lungs unable to inflate
  275. pyothorax
    • pus in pleural cavity
    • hemothorax
    • prevent expansion of lungs during inspiration
  276. ruptured diaphragm
    prevent lung inflation as diaphragm will be unable to flatten to increase vol of thoracic cavity

    (most common hernia with exception of umbilical hernia)
  277. pulmonary congestion/edema
    • associated with heart disease (frequently enlarged heart)
    • can also effect functioning of lungs
  278. males&larger animals have ______ respirations
    lower
  279. dog respirations conscious vs gen. anesthesia
    • conscious: 10-30
    • anesthesia: 12-16
  280. cat respirations conscious vs gen. anesthesia
    • conscious: 20-30
    • anesthesia: 12-16
  281. Hering-Breuer reflex
    • respiratory reflex
    • stretch receptors inhibit inspiration when lungs stretched and stimulate inspiration when deflated

    (sitting on couch and take a deep breath out of nowhere)
  282. baroreceptors/pressorreceptors
    • in carotid sinus&aortic arch
    • monitor degree of stretch of vessels as indicator of BP
  283. pH detected by specialized receptors called
    • chemoreceptors
    • central chemoreceptors- on surface of medulla
    • peripheral-in aortic arch&carotid sinus
    • stimulated by lowering of pH/fall in oxygen
    • results in increase in rate&depth of respiration to eliminate excess CO2
  284. suffocation
    • rising levels of dissolved CO2
    • by-product; ketones >acidosis

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