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the study of how others influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to overestimate the importance of internal factors, and to underestimate the influence of external factors, when judging the causes of other people's behavior.
he tendency to focus on the most noticeable factors when making attributions.
the tendency to believe that people generally get what they deserve
the tendency to attribute one's own successes to internal,personal factors and one's own failures to external, situational factors
a learned, usually negative, attitude toward members of a social group.
overgeneralized set of beliefs about the characteristics of people who belong to a particular social group.
negative, harmful, unfair behaviors directed toward members of a particular social group
the tendency to view members of the groups that one belongs to more favorably than one views members of groups that one doesn't belong to.
outgroup homogeneity effect
the tendency to perceive greater similarity and less diversity among members of the groups that one doesn't belong to than among members of groups that one does belong to.
changing one's behavior as a result of real or imagined group pressure
Normative social influence
when a person conforms top group pressure in order to avoid appearing deviant.
rule of behavior concerning what is acceptable in a given situation.
Informational social influence
when a person conforms top group pressure out of a need for direction or information.
the people we conform to because we like or admire them, and we want to associate with them
following direct commands
any behavior intended to harm someone.
states that the frustration that occurs when someone is blocked from achieving a goal causes anger and creates a motive to aggress against the source of the frustration.
Three approaches to reducing aggression.
- engage in harmless forms of aggression
- introduce emotional responses
- improve social and communication skills.
actions intended to help others without obvious benefit to the helper.
Three approaches to explaining helping behavior
- Evolutionary theory
- The egoistic model
- The empathy-altruism hypothesis
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