Card Set Information
What is a phalanx?
A block formation of foot soldiers
What did Alexander conquer by the time he died?
Western Asia Minor
What could explain the collapse of the Minoan culture?
The Mycenaeans conquered Crete
Violent earthquake leveled Knossos
Cataclysmic volcanic eruption
What characteristics are shown in Hellenistic art?
Realism and depiction of psychological pain
On the basis of the characteristics of the Mycenaean citadel, scholars deduce the culture was ______
Match kingdoms to regions:
Pergamon - Asia Minor
Seleucid - Persia to Asia
Antigonid - Thrace/Macedonia
Ptolemaic - Egypt
What was the legacy of Alexander's conquest?
Greek culture was spread throughout the east
Eastern cultures impacted Greece
The best account of the Trojan horse and Troy's defeat is found in:
The complex at Delphi was dedicated to what god?
What was the main center of Minoan culture?
Greek geography did not contain...
Long, wide valleys, ideal for large field crops
What did Cleisthenes achieve?
Created council of 500
Restructured the tribes of Athens
Abolished power centers within the ranks of citizens by equalizing the way offices were filled
During the age of Pericles, Athenians defined citizen as:
A male landowner whose parents had been native born Athenian citizens
Greek historian known as Father of Scientific History
Took an objective look at history ignoring the role of deities and focusing on developments of events
Forbade the export of wheat
The final defeat of the Persians on land by the Greeks in the Persians wars came at:
Historian who documented the Persian Wars
What was the most important result of the Persian War?
The Athenians were considered heroes and the new leaders of a "united" Greece
What was the significance of the Parthenon?
Relying on vulcanism, it was the residence of the Oracle of Delphi, and thus a center of religion
The Peloponnesian War was the result of:
Athenian attempts to conquer Europe
When did the Persian Wars begin?
When the Persians attacked the Greek colony of Ionia after the rebelled from Persian rule
To what god was the complex at Olympia dedicated?
Who were the chief executive officers of the Roman Republic that were responsible for leading the Roman army into battle and administering the government?
Voted dictator for life and murdered by defenders of the Republic
Conservative who turned back the reforms of his predicessors
Built new Roman army relying on underemployed
Established the foundation of the Empire through the Principate
Formed and eastern alliance with an eastern monarch (Cleopatra)
The foundation of Rome along the Tiber occurred in what year?
Early Romans were dominated by what people?
Who were the legendary founders of Rome?
Name the noble Roman virtues
Who had the most significant effect on culture and society of Rome?
Saw the damage that the creation of latifundia did to Roman society
Killed by a group of senators
His brother, Gaius, took up his cause and was also killed
The First Punic War
Initiated between Carthage and Rome because both viewed Sicily as their own domain
The Second Punic War
Saw Hannibal effectively invade Italy from the north
Resulted in the end of the purple dye market
The Third Punic War
Resulted in Carthage being eliminated as a threat to Rome
What occurred from the struggle between the classes in Ancient Rome?
The struggle continued to grow in the wake of the Punic Wars and the creation of the Roman empire
The underprivileged working class
What made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire?
The Theodosian Code
The government founded by Diocletian's division of the empire:
Who wrote "City of God"?
Augustine of Hippo
This historian argued that the Roman Empire fell in the west because it converted to Christianity.
The faction of Jews who led the revolt at Madada
Jewish historian who wrote an account of the Jewish Wars and of the events at Masada
Jews who formed a monastic community at Qum'ran
Christ and God did not have equally Divine nature
The Arian heresy
A religion that predated and influenced Christianity
The right of the eastern emperor to impose their views on Church affairs
Plebeians descended from the rape of these women
Converted to Christianity on the battlefield
Gladiator and cruelest of the Roman emperors
Sacked Rome and established a kingdom in Spain
Octavian Augustus' reign
Established Christian orthodoxy
5th century invaders from Central Asia
Last of his dynastic line, Rome burned on his watch
The holiest site in the Muslim religion, where Muslims pray five times a day
First pillar of Islam
Declaration of faith
Fifth pillar of Islam
The journey of Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina
Submission to God
The Great Schism
The division of the Christian Church between East and West
The Byzantine Empire was the successor of what?
Eastern Roman Empire
Frankish leader who defeated the Muslims in 732 in Central France, thus stopping their advance into Europe
Crowned King of Rome at a mass in 800 by the Pope
Who called for the First Crusade?
Pope Urban II
What was the goal of the First Crusade?
Recapture the Holy Lands
Died on his way to the Holy Lands during the Third Crusade
System of landholding and obligations during the Medieval period
Assumed the throne of England after the death of Edward the Confessor
William the Conqueror
Invaded England in 1066, laying claim to the English throne
The decisive battle for England after the Norman Invasion in 1066
Russian city that dominated Eastern Europe in the 10th and 11th centuries
Islamic religion split between the Shiites and the Sunnis over the question of....
The succession after Muhammed's death
Pilgrimage to Mecca
What happened to Muhammad during the Night Journey?
He ascended to heaven
A Muslim in the Holy Land during the Crusades
A probable factor for the decline of the Aztec civilization...
Arrival of Hernan Cortes, who was believed to be Quetzalcoatl
City famous for its pyramids of the Sun and Moon
Barrios for the working classes
Special precinct for the elite
Houses the tomb of the ruler Pacal
Half a million people
The Ball Court at Chichen Itza
Used primarily for religious purposes
Maya center which survived the longest
Later became a Toltec center
Rulers of Benin
Spread of Islam in Africa
Established a vast trading network
Development of written traditions
Application of Arabic laws
Christ had a single, divine nature
Located along the Zambizi River
City held mixed economy resting on farming, cattle herding, and commercial pursuits
Most powerful and prosperous state in South Africa
Named after Arabic word for "coast"
East African cities flourished within Islamic trading network
A key cultural characteristic of African societies
Lineage was matrilineal instead of patrilineal
Congo River Valley
Copper and iron enabled the people to enjoy an agricultural surplus and engage in regional commerce
Kings in West Africa, after the introduction of Islam...
Tended to embrace religious customs and allow rural people to maintain shamanistic religions
Improved the efficiency and authority of governments
Experienced increased literacy
Center for medieval Coptic Christianity
River valley most associated with gold mining
First of the great commercial states in West Africa
Former savannah and largest barrier in the North-South trade
African city made famous for its Great Gate
Saharan salt caravans
Victorious "servant of the cross"
"The Book of Routes and Realms"
A country in decline after Muslim invasion
"On the Erythraean Sea"
Indigenous North Africa
How many forms of the Plague?
Most common form of the Plague
Where did the Plague originate?
Most scientific evidence of the day argued the Plague was caused by
Corruption of the atmosphere
Rid the word of the Plague by atoning for the sins of man
Group blamed by many for the outbreak of the Plague
The Hundred Years War was fought between
England and France
Joan of Arc was from what country?
Literal definition of Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci began his career as a
City that was the birthplace of the Renaissance
Sir Thomas More
"Praise of Folly"
University of Paris
Medieval university that suggested the Plague came from a conjunction of the planets
Joan of Arc's victories
Boosting French morale
Charles VII crowned King of France in Rheims
French defeated English by 1453
When did the Black Death arrive in Europe?
Genoese sailors fled the siege of the Mongols in Caffa and landed in Messina, Sicily
"The ends justify the means"
What event caused conflict within the feudal society and resulted in the Hundred Years War?
William the Conqueror's conquest of England, making him King of England and vassal of the King of France
Plague transmitted through the bloodstream
Plague transmitted through air
Faction from Orleans
In the Hundred Years war, the Burgundians opposed the supporters from the royal line from Orleans
What did Joan of Arc claim "voices" told her?
To have Charles crowned King of France and to drive the English out