Bio-Ch. 15

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Bio-Ch. 15
2013-05-04 18:15:15
Intro Bio

Bio Ch. 15
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  1. What are members of a species living in a given area?
  2. How many copies of each gene does a person typically have?
    at least two
  3. What are copies of a gene that may have different sequences?
  4. What are copies of a gene that have the same two alleles?
  5. What are copies of a gene that have two different alleles?
  6. What are the actual genes?
  7. What is the effect of the gene?
  8. What is it when the effect shows up with either one or two copies?
    dominant genes
  9. What is it when the two copies are needed and it doesn't show up if there is also a dominant allele?
    recessive genes
  10. What is the sum of all the genes in a population?
    gene pool
  11. What is another definition of evolution?
    the change in genes of a population (allele frequency) over time
  12. What is it when the allele frequency stays unchanged?
  13. Under condition of equilibrium, what is happening with evolution?
    no evolution is occurring
  14. What is it called when no evolution is occurring?
    Hardy-Weinberg principle
  15. What are the five parts of the Hardy-Weinberg principle (equilibrium population)?
    • no mutation
    • no flow of genes between populations
    • the population must be large
    • all mating must be random (no mating tendencies)
    • no natural selection (all must reproduce with equal success)
  16. What is a change in DNA sequence?
  17. How rare is a mutation?
    1 in 50000 newborns
  18. What can a mutation be?
    • helpful
    • neutral
    • harmful
  19. What is it when the allele frequency changes due to chance events?
    genetic drift
  20. What are examples of chance events?
    • fire
    • volcano
    • seeds landing in a place they can't grow
  21. What are causes of genetic drift?
    • population bottleneck
    • founder effect
  22. What is a catastrophe or other cause such as overhunting that causes a drastic change in the population?
    population bottleneck
  23. What is it when a small population becomes isolated?
    founder effect
  24. What is an example of the founder effect?
    a flock of birds blown off course may start a new colony in a new place
  25. Does evolution always equal better?
  26. What are the two parts of natural selection?
    • survival of the fittest
    • ability to reproduce
  27. What is a measure of an organisms reproductive success?
  28. What is the characteristic that helps an individual survive?
  29. What are the four processes that guide natural selection?
    • adaptation to environment
    • competition
    • predation
    • sexual selection
  30. What is any situation where one organism eats another?
  31. What are traits that help an organism mate?
    sexual selection
  32. What is it when a gene that gives an advantage to a member of a population will make it more competitive, maybe more will survive?
  33. What is the current definition of a species?
    a natural population that is reproductively isolated from another group
  34. What is it when every living organism of a species dies?
  35. What are some causes of extinction?
    • competition
    • predation
    • habitat change or destruction
  36. What are two ways that organisms avoid mating between species?
    • pre-mating mechanisms
    • post mating mechanisms