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What are members of a species living in a given area?
How many copies of each gene does a person typically have?
at least two
What are copies of a gene that may have different sequences?
What are copies of a gene that have the same two alleles?
What are copies of a gene that have two different alleles?
What are the actual genes?
What is the effect of the gene?
What is it when the effect shows up with either one or two copies?
What is it when the two copies are needed and it doesn't show up if there is also a dominant allele?
What is the sum of all the genes in a population?
What is another definition of evolution?
the change in genes of a population (allele frequency) over time
What is it when the allele frequency stays unchanged?
Under condition of equilibrium, what is happening with evolution?
no evolution is occurring
What is it called when no evolution is occurring?
What are the five parts of the Hardy-Weinberg principle (equilibrium population)?
no flow of genes between populations
the population must be large
all mating must be random (no mating tendencies)
no natural selection (all must reproduce with equal success)
What is a change in DNA sequence?
How rare is a mutation?
1 in 50000 newborns
What can a mutation be?
What is it when the allele frequency changes due to chance events?
What are examples of chance events?
seeds landing in a place they can't grow
What are causes of genetic drift?
What is a catastrophe or other cause such as overhunting that causes a drastic change in the population?
What is it when a small population becomes isolated?
What is an example of the founder effect?
a flock of birds blown off course may start a new colony in a new place
Does evolution always equal better?
What are the two parts of natural selection?
survival of the fittest
ability to reproduce
What is a measure of an organisms reproductive success?
What is the characteristic that helps an individual survive?
What are the four processes that guide natural selection?
adaptation to environment
What is any situation where one organism eats another?
What are traits that help an organism mate?
What is it when a gene that gives an advantage to a member of a population will make it more competitive, maybe more will survive?
What is the current definition of a species?
a natural population that is reproductively isolated from another group
What is it when every living organism of a species dies?
What are some causes of extinction?
habitat change or destruction
What are two ways that organisms avoid mating between species?
post mating mechanisms
Bio Ch. 15