BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 8

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BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 8
2013-05-02 12:32:30
BIOL 404 Exam GI

BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 8
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  1. Where does absorption of water and minerals occur?
    • Primarily in the small intestine
    • Some in Large intestine
  2. Approximately how much water is absorbed into the blood in the Small intestine per day?
    6700 mL
  3. Approximately how much water is absorbed into the blood in the Large intestine per day?
    1400 mL
  4. How much water is consumed per day?
    1200 mL
  5. Where does most the water in the GI come from?
    Secretions (bile, pancreatic, gastric, intestinal)
  6. How much solid does the average adult take in per day?
    500-800 grams
  7. How much fluid is secreted into the GI per day?
  8. What organs secrete fluid into the GI?
    • Pancreas
    • Salivary glands
    • Gastric Glands
    • liver
    • Small Intestine
  9. How much liquid and solids are excreted daily?
    100mL and 50g
  10. What is water absorption dependant on?
    Absorption of ions
  11. What ion accounts for most of water absorbed?
    Na ions
  12. Sodium inside the epithelial cells is transported where?
    Into the interstitium by an active process involving Na,K-ATPase pumps
  13. How is epithelial cell Sodium transported into the interstitium?
    Active transport by a Na/K ATPase
  14. Why does water flow passively into GI epithelial cells?
    Follows Na
  15. Why does Na flow passively into GI epithelial cells?
    Na/K ATPase is always pumping Na out of the cell into the interstitium
  16. How does the osmolarity of the GI lumen compare to inside the interstitial spaces?
    High in interstitial spaces
  17. Water in the epithelial cells flows where?
    To the higher osmolarity interstitial space
  18. What causes water to flow into the capillaries?
    High hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid
  19. High hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid drives what?
    The movement of water into the capillaries
  20. How are Vitamins A, D, K and E absorbed?
    Follow Fat absorption
  21. What vitamins follow fat absorption?
    A, D, E, K
  22. How are all water soluble vitamins except B12 absorbed?
    Diffusion or mediated transport
  23. What Vitamins are absorbed by diffusion or mediated transport?
    All water soluble vitamins except B12
  24. What does a deficiency in B12 lead to?
    Pernicious anemia
  25. What leads to pernicious anemia?
    B12 deficiency
  26. What protein binds B12?
    Intrinsic factor?
  27. What is intrinsic factor?
    A protein that binds B12 and aids its absorption
  28. The B12/intrinsic factor complex binds does what?
    binds specific sites in the lower ileum
  29. Where is B12 absorbed?
    In the lower ileum
  30. What vitamin is absorbed in the lower ileum?
  31. After the B12/intrinsic factor complex binds the lower ileum, what happens?
    B12 is absorbed by endocytosis
  32. How can a B12 deficiency develop?
    Stomach or ileum is surgically removed to treat ulcers or cancer