Science Exam 8th Grade Level

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  1. The study of life on Earth.
  2. The study of rocks, and Geological process of the Earth.
  3. The study of the physical world e live in.
  4. The study of the elements and compounds of Earth.
  5. The study of plants.
  6. The study of ancient human cultures and societies.
  7. The study of ancient life forms of the Earth.
  8. The study of the formation of the Universe, Galaxies, and solar systems.
  9. The study of weather.
  10. The interactions of the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.
  11. Protects the cell, keeps nutrients and water (A & P)
    Cell Membrane
  12. Creates the skeleton of plant cells, gives structure (P)
    Cell Wall
  13. The salt water (3%) in a cell (A & P)
  14. Chambers for the storage of food and water  (large in P, and small in A)
  15. Passage ways or hallways of the cell (A & P)
    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  16. Used for packaging nutrients and waste coming into/leaving the cell (A & P)
    Golgi Complex
  17. Makes energy for the cell using oxygen and sugar (A & P)
  18. Garbage man of the cell (A)
  19. Makes protein for the cell (A & P)
  20. Control center for the cell, contains genetic material
  21. Lets things into and out of the nucleus
    Nuclear Membrane
  22. In the nucleus and makes ribosomes
  23. Nucleic acids which make up DNA, cell's program
  24. No energy used.
    Passive Transport
  25. The movement of water from area of high conc. to low conc.
  26. The movement of chemicals from area of high conc. to low conc.
  27. Energy used to move chem. and water from area of low conc. into high conc.
    Active Transport
  28. Autorophic (plants making their own food)
  29. Photosynthesis Formula
    Sunlight + CO2 + H2O-> Sugar (glucose C6H12O6) + O2
  30. Happens in the Mitochondria of the cell
    Cellular Resporation
  31. Cellular Respiration Formula
    Sugar (Glucose) + O2 -> Energy (ATP) + CO2 + water
  32. Prokarote- all single celled organisms without a nucleus (archea & bacteria)
  33. eukaryote- all single celled organisms with a nucleus (protisit & algea)
  34. eukaryote- all multi-cellular organisms that live on dead organic material
  35. eukaryote- all organisms which can make their food during photosynthesis
  36. eukaryote- all multi-celled heterotrophs
  37. eat plants
  38. eat meat
  39. live on dead plant and animal matter
  40. animals that scavenge on dead animals
  41. bacteria that eat dead plant matter
  42. an experiment that tests only one variable at a  time by using a comparison of a controlled group with an experimental group
    controlled experiment
  43. behaviors inherited from parents before birth- carried in a collective specie's genetic material or DNA
    innate behavior
  44. behaviors learned after birth which are stored as knowledge or experiences in the cerebrum of the brain
    learned behavior
  45. resources which can be regrown or restored within a period of time to be used again
    renewable resources
  46. resources that once used can't be regrown or restored within a period of time
    non-renewable resources
  47. those diseases which are transmitted from one member of a species to another because of the proximity of the individuals (common cold)
    density dependent diseases
  48. those disease which are not spread from one member of a species to another because of density (cancer, diabetes)
    density independent diseases
  49. series of steps followed to solve problems
    scientific method
  50. #1 of the scientific method
    observation of nature to deduce a problem
  51. #2 of the scientific method
    hypothesis- a statement and a reason why something happens on nature
  52. #3 in the scientific method
    experimentation to test the hypothesis
  53. #4 in the scientific method
    analysis of the results of the experimentation
  54. #5 in the scientific method
    conclusion- a statement as a summary of the hypothesis and experimentation
  55. #6 in the scientific method
    sharing results- communicating the results to others so they may learn from them
  56. Protective covering for the body and internal organs.
  57. move bones (skeletal), pumps blood (cardiac) and digests food (smooth)
    muscular system
  58. The 206 bones of the body, used to structure, support, makes blood cells, stores minerals and vitamins, and protects vital organs.
    Skeletal System
  59. consisting of heart and lungs, arteries, veins, capillaries, and aorta,transports blood around the body.
    Caridovascular System
  60. Organ (lings, trachea and passage ways leading to the lungs) whose primary function is to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide.
    Respiratory System
  61. Kidneys, Ureter, urinary bladder and urethra
    Urinary System
  62. all of the nerves, nervous system, neurons (brains) and spinal cord
    Nervous system
  63. consisting of stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, to break down food used by th body for nutrition.
    Digestive System
  64. a collection organs whose primary function is to collect extracurricular fluid and return it to the blood; includes lymph nodes and lymphatic vesicles.
    Lymphatic System
  65. System of glands and groups of cells that secrete hormones that regulate growth, development and homeostasis, includes the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, the hypothalamus, the pineal body and  gonads.
    Endocrine System
  66. a group of organs used to reproduce the members of a species. Ovaries, Fallopian Tube, uterus, cervix and vagina in females, testis, vas deferens, prostate gland, cowpers gland, seminal vesicle, and penis in males.
    Reproductive system
  67. brain stem, cerebellum, cerebum
  68. passageway for food from end of trachea to stomach
  69. tube leading from  to the lungs
  70. uses enzymes and acids to break down food into nutrients the body can use
  71. recovers nutrients from the digestive system and incorporates them into the circulatory system
    small intestine
  72. lies behind the stomach and makes digestive enzymes and hormones to regulate blood sugar
  73. organs that filter water and wastes from the blood and excretes products such as urine and salt
  74. makes bile for the digestion of fats and oils, stores and filers blood and stores excess sugar as glycogen
  75. The wider and shorter portion of the intestine that removes water from mostly digested food that turns the waste into semi-solid feces
    Large intestine
  76. The largest lymphatic organ in the body; serves as a blood reservoir,disintegrates old red blood cells, and produces lymphocytes and plasmids.
  77. starches and sugars used by the body for quick energy
  78. amino acid chains used to build and repair the body
  79. fatty acids acids and glycerol used for long term energy in the body
    Fats and oils
  80. (ADEK are fat soluble-stored by the body, all others are water soluble - needed daily) used to maintain health and allow growth, cofactors for enzymes
  81. abiotic elements used by the body for certain metabolic processes
  82. abiotic nurtient in which all chemical reaction s take place, maintain homeostasis, manages heat distribution in the body
  83. major divisions in the Earth's long history
    geological time scale
  84. Precursor to the theory of plate tectonics- continents slide around the Earth on top of the ocean's floor
    Wegener's Theory of Continental Drift
  85. The theory that explains how large pieces of the earth's layer, move and change shape over time.
    The Theory of Plate Tectonics
  86. displacement of the earth's crust caused by compression, tension or strike/slip boundaries, plate tectonics, subduction zones, or spreading centers
  87. a seismic wave created on water by and earthquake
  88. a hot rock gas cloud created by an outburt of lava from a valcano
    Pyroclastic Flow
  89. a mud flow created on the side of a volcano which can run long distances downhill
  90. Three kinds of volcanoes.
    Composite, Shield, Cinder Cone
  91. Four kinds of lava based on silica content
    Basalt, Andesite, Dactite, Rhyolite
  92. The dating of geological strata or rocks based on the layers above and below. (Relative age)
    Relative geological dating
  93. the dating of geological strata or rocks based on the radioactive dating techniques or index fossils (exact age)
    Absolute geological dating
  94. The process of which substances are aged based on the radioactive decay of elements found in the sample.
    radioactive dating techniques (1/2 life)
  95. compression wave (pushing) created fist during an earthquake
  96. a side-to-side motion wave created during an earthquake
  97. an up-and-down motion wave created during an earthquake
  98. An object in motion or at rest, will stay in motion or at rest, unless acted on by an outside force.
    Newton's Law #1
  99. The acceleration of an object is proportional to the force applied to the object divided by the mass of the object.
    Newton's Law #2
  100. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
    Newton's Law #3
  101. The resistance of any object to any change in it's state of motion.
  102. An immersed object, submerged or floating is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced or pushed out of the way by the object.
    Archimedes's Principle
  103. The pressure applied to a fluid confined in a container is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid and acts in all directions.
    Pascal's Principle
  104. The pressure of a fluid on a surface decreases as the fluid's velocity relative to the surface increases- the reason planes are able to fly.
    Bernoulli's Principle
  105. When increased, pressure is placed on a volume of gas, the volume of gas decreases when pressure decreases, the volume of gas increases if temperature and volume remain consistent.
    Boule's Law
  106. When temp. increases on a volume of gas the volume of gas increases proportionally, when temp. decreases on a volume of gas, the volume of gas decreases proportionally.
    Charles's Law
  107. Energy is neither created or destroyed, it just changes from (most heat from friction) you can tell by just the way it is during any type of energy conversion.
    Law of Conservation of Energy
  108. Physical property of matter. P- mass x velocity
  109. _____________is a measure of the amount of molecular energy in a substance. A thermometer gives us a number which corresponds to a particular amount of moleculer energy
  110. The absolute temperature scale were absolute zero is zero, ice melts at 273k, water boils at sea level 373k
  111. The SI temperature scale were absolute zero is -273, ice melts at 0 Celsius  and water boils at sea level at 100 degrees Celsius.
  112. The English temp. scale were absolute zero is -460, ice melts at 32 F, and water boils at sea level at 212 F.
  113. At the surface of Earth, the weight of air above that presses on the surface. 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level is average
    Atmospheric Pressure
  114. (physical) energy required to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius, 4.186 joules
  115. (human) is 1000 physical calories is the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius
  116. force which holds objects in a circular path
    Centripetal Force
  117. The outward pulling force on objects in a circular path
    Centrifugal Force
  118. Physical property of matter based on the amount of matter in a given area. Density = mass / volume.
  119. A change  in the frequency of sound or light due to relative motion of source and reciever
    Doppler Effect
  120. The energy stored in substances based on elevated position (gravitational), elasticity, chemical or electrical energy
    Potential energy
  121. The energy of a substance based on its motion.
    kinetic energy
  122. Every object in the universe attracts, where am i, every other object with a force that for two objects is proportional to the masses of the object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance separating them.
    Law of universal gravition
  123. all substances will either expand or contract as the temp. of the substance increases or decreases.
    Thermal expansion and contraction
  124. Einstein's theory that states motion is relative to the position off the object being observed in motion, and the person doing the observation.
    Theory of Relativity
  125. The product of the force exerted and the distance through which the force moves: work (J) = force (N) x distance (M)
  126. The time rate at which work is performed: Power (watt) = work (J) / time (s)
  127. An SI unit of force = to 1 kilogram accelerated i meter per second each second
  128. a number which tell you how many times the machine will mult. your force to move an object.
    mechanical adventage
  129. a machine made of one or more simple machines
    compound machine
  130. The distance covered in a unit of time S= d/t
  131. speed in a particular direction V= d/t a ? direction
  132. the change in velocity over time or change in direction, or BOTH A= final velocity-initial velocity/ time
  133. when just studying the effects of gravity with out air resistance, objects will fall to the earth at a rate of 9.81 meters per sec. per sec.
    gravity (free fall)
  134. objects such as satellites are able to orbit the earth when their speed above the surface of the is sufficient that the objects travel away from the earth is equal to the distance, gravity pulls it back to the earth
    how things orbit the earth
  135. the resistance of two surfaces in contact,  usually creates heat and reduces efficiency of machines
  136. The law of conservation of mass says that all the mass input into a chemical reaction as reactants will be = to all the mass coming out of a chemical reaction as products.
    Law of Conservation of Mass
  137. number of protons (+ charge) or electrons (- charge)
    atomic number
  138. number of protons and neutrons
    # of neutrons = atomic mass- atomic #
    atomic mass
  139. in the nucleus of atom- have positive charges
  140. circling the nucleus has a negative charge
  141. in the nucleus of atom- have neutral charges and hold protons togeher
  142. up and down columns- are atoms with similar properties
  143. horizontal rows- atoms that have the same number of electron rings or energy levels
  144. a measure of the amount of matter in  a substance (never changes)
  145. mass multiplied x gravity (changes ias gravity changes)
  146. in a chemical formula they always start with a Hydrogen are low in the pH scale
  147. in a chemical formula they always end in a Hydroxide ion OH
  148. one atomic unit of any substance will contain 6.022 x 1023 atom or molecules dependign on the substance
    Avogardo's principle
Card Set:
Science Exam 8th Grade Level
2013-05-05 21:02:07
Science Exams

Covers life science, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Geology, Physics, Chemistry, and Astronomy.
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