Covers life science, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Geology, Physics, Chemistry, and Astronomy.
The study of life on Earth.
The study of rocks, and Geological process of the Earth.
The study of the physical world e live in.
The study of the elements and compounds of Earth.
The study of plants.
The study of ancient human cultures and societies.
The study of ancient life forms of the Earth.
The study of the formation of the Universe, Galaxies, and solar systems.
The study of weather.
The interactions of the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.
Protects the cell, keeps nutrients and water (A & P)
Creates the skeleton of plant cells, gives structure (P)
The salt water (3%) in a cell (A & P)
Chambers for the storage of food and water (large in P, and small in A)
Passage ways or hallways of the cell (A & P)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Used for packaging nutrients and waste coming into/leaving the cell (A & P)
Makes energy for the cell using oxygen and sugar (A & P)
Garbage man of the cell (A)
Makes protein for the cell (A & P)
Control center for the cell, contains genetic material
Lets things into and out of the nucleus
In the nucleus and makes ribosomes
Nucleic acids which make up DNA, cell's program
No energy used.
The movement of water from area of high conc. to low conc.
The movement of chemicals from area of high conc. to low conc.
Energy used to move chem. and water from area of low conc. into high conc.
Autorophic (plants making their own food)
Sunlight + CO2 + H2O-> Sugar (glucose C6H12O6) + O2
Happens in the Mitochondria of the cell
Cellular Respiration Formula
Sugar (Glucose) + O2 -> Energy (ATP) + CO2 + water
Prokarote- all single celled organisms without a nucleus (archea & bacteria)
eukaryote- all single celled organisms with a nucleus (protisit & algea)
eukaryote- all multi-cellular organisms that live on dead organic material
eukaryote- all organisms which can make their food during photosynthesis
eukaryote- all multi-celled heterotrophs
live on dead plant and animal matter
animals that scavenge on dead animals
bacteria that eat dead plant matter
an experiment that tests only one variable at a time by using a comparison of a controlled group with an experimental group
behaviors inherited from parents before birth- carried in a collective specie's genetic material or DNA
behaviors learned after birth which are stored as knowledge or experiences in the cerebrum of the brain
resources which can be regrown or restored within a period of time to be used again
resources that once used can't be regrown or restored within a period of time
those diseases which are transmitted from one member of a species to another because of the proximity of the individuals (common cold)
density dependent diseases
those disease which are not spread from one member of a species to another because of density (cancer, diabetes)
density independent diseases
series of steps followed to solve problems
#1 of the scientific method
observation of nature to deduce a problem
#2 of the scientific method
hypothesis- a statement and a reason why something happens on nature
#3 in the scientific method
experimentation to test the hypothesis
#4 in the scientific method
analysis of the results of the experimentation
#5 in the scientific method
conclusion- a statement as a summary of the hypothesis and experimentation
#6 in the scientific method
sharing results- communicating the results to others so they may learn from them
Protective covering for the body and internal organs.
move bones (skeletal), pumps blood (cardiac) and digests food (smooth)
The 206 bones of the body, used to structure, support, makes blood cells, stores minerals and vitamins, and protects vital organs.
consisting of heart and lungs, arteries, veins, capillaries, and aorta,transports blood around the body.
Organ (lings, trachea and passage ways leading to the lungs) whose primary function is to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide.
Kidneys, Ureter, urinary bladder and urethra
all of the nerves, nervous system, neurons (brains) and spinal cord
consisting of stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, to break down food used by th body for nutrition.
a collection organs whose primary function is to collect extracurricular fluid and return it to the blood; includes lymph nodes and lymphatic vesicles.
System of glands and groups of cells that secrete hormones that regulate growth, development and homeostasis, includes the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, the hypothalamus, the pineal body and gonads.
a group of organs used to reproduce the members of a species. Ovaries, Fallopian Tube, uterus, cervix and vagina in females, testis, vas deferens, prostate gland, cowpers gland, seminal vesicle, and penis in males.
brain stem, cerebellum, cerebum
passageway for food from end of trachea to stomach
tube leading from to the lungs
uses enzymes and acids to break down food into nutrients the body can use
recovers nutrients from the digestive system and incorporates them into the circulatory system
lies behind the stomach and makes digestive enzymes and hormones to regulate blood sugar
organs that filter water and wastes from the blood and excretes products such as urine and salt
makes bile for the digestion of fats and oils, stores and filers blood and stores excess sugar as glycogen
The wider and shorter portion of the intestine that removes water from mostly digested food that turns the waste into semi-solid feces
The largest lymphatic organ in the body; serves as a blood reservoir,disintegrates old red blood cells, and produces lymphocytes and plasmids.
starches and sugars used by the body for quick energy
amino acid chains used to build and repair the body
fatty acids acids and glycerol used for long term energy in the body
Fats and oils
(ADEK are fat soluble-stored by the body, all others are water soluble - needed daily) used to maintain health and allow growth, cofactors for enzymes
abiotic elements used by the body for certain metabolic processes
abiotic nurtient in which all chemical reaction s take place, maintain homeostasis, manages heat distribution in the body
major divisions in the Earth's long history
geological time scale
Precursor to the theory of plate tectonics- continents slide around the Earth on top of the ocean's floor
Wegener's Theory of Continental Drift
The theory that explains how large pieces of the earth's layer, move and change shape over time.
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
displacement of the earth's crust caused by compression, tension or strike/slip boundaries, plate tectonics, subduction zones, or spreading centers
a seismic wave created on water by and earthquake
a hot rock gas cloud created by an outburt of lava from a valcano
a mud flow created on the side of a volcano which can run long distances downhill
Three kinds of volcanoes.
Composite, Shield, Cinder Cone
Four kinds of lava based on silica content
Basalt, Andesite, Dactite, Rhyolite
The dating of geological strata or rocks based on the layers above and below. (Relative age)
Relative geological dating
the dating of geological strata or rocks based on the radioactive dating techniques or index fossils (exact age)
Absolute geological dating
The process of which substances are aged based on the radioactive decay of elements found in the sample.
radioactive dating techniques (1/2 life)
compression wave (pushing) created fist during an earthquake
a side-to-side motion wave created during an earthquake
an up-and-down motion wave created during an earthquake
An object in motion or at rest, will stay in motion or at rest, unless acted on by an outside force.
Newton's Law #1
The acceleration of an object is proportional to the force applied to the object divided by the mass of the object.
Newton's Law #2
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Newton's Law #3
The resistance of any object to any change in it's state of motion.
An immersed object, submerged or floating is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced or pushed out of the way by the object.
The pressure applied to a fluid confined in a container is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid and acts in all directions.
The pressure of a fluid on a surface decreases as the fluid's velocity relative to the surface increases- the reason planes are able to fly.
When increased, pressure is placed on a volume of gas, the volume of gas decreases when pressure decreases, the volume of gas increases if temperature and volume remain consistent.
When temp. increases on a volume of gas the volume of gas increases proportionally, when temp. decreases on a volume of gas, the volume of gas decreases proportionally.
Energy is neither created or destroyed, it just changes from (most heat from friction) you can tell by just the way it is during any type of energy conversion.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Physical property of matter. P- mass x velocity
_____________is a measure of the amount of molecular energy in a substance. A thermometer gives us a number which corresponds to a particular amount of moleculer energy
The absolute temperature scale were absolute zero is zero, ice melts at 273k, water boils at sea level 373k
The SI temperature scale were absolute zero is -273, ice melts at 0 Celsius and water boils at sea level at 100 degrees Celsius.
The English temp. scale were absolute zero is -460, ice melts at 32 F, and water boils at sea level at 212 F.
At the surface of Earth, the weight of air above that presses on the surface. 14.7 pounds per square inch at sea level is average
(physical) energy required to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius, 4.186 joules
(human) is 1000 physical calories is the amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius
force which holds objects in a circular path
The outward pulling force on objects in a circular path
Physical property of matter based on the amount of matter in a given area. Density = mass / volume.
A change in the frequency of sound or light due to relative motion of source and reciever
The energy stored in substances based on elevated position (gravitational), elasticity, chemical or electrical energy
The energy of a substance based on its motion.
Every object in the universe attracts, where am i, every other object with a force that for two objects is proportional to the masses of the object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance separating them.
Law of universal gravition
all substances will either expand or contract as the temp. of the substance increases or decreases.
Thermal expansion and contraction
Einstein's theory that states motion is relative to the position off the object being observed in motion, and the person doing the observation.
Theory of Relativity
The product of the force exerted and the distance through which the force moves: work (J) = force (N) x distance (M)
The time rate at which work is performed: Power (watt) = work (J) / time (s)
An SI unit of force = to 1 kilogram accelerated i meter per second each second
a number which tell you how many times the machine will mult. your force to move an object.
a machine made of one or more simple machines
The distance covered in a unit of time S= d/t
speed in a particular direction V= d/t a ? direction
the change in velocity over time or change in direction, or BOTH A= final velocity-initial velocity/ time
when just studying the effects of gravity with out air resistance, objects will fall to the earth at a rate of 9.81 meters per sec. per sec.
gravity (free fall)
objects such as satellites are able to orbit the earth when their speed above the surface of the is sufficient that the objects travel away from the earth is equal to the distance, gravity pulls it back to the earth
how things orbit the earth
the resistance of two surfaces in contact, usually creates heat and reduces efficiency of machines
The law of conservation of mass says that all the mass input into a chemical reaction as reactants will be = to all the mass coming out of a chemical reaction as products.
Law of Conservation of Mass
number of protons (+ charge) or electrons (- charge)
number of protons and neutrons
# of neutrons = atomic mass- atomic #
in the nucleus of atom- have positive charges
circling the nucleus has a negative charge
in the nucleus of atom- have neutral charges and hold protons togeher
up and down columns- are atoms with similar properties
horizontal rows- atoms that have the same number of electron rings or energy levels
a measure of the amount of matter in a substance (never changes)
mass multiplied x gravity (changes ias gravity changes)
in a chemical formula they always start with a Hydrogen are low in the pH scale
in a chemical formula they always end in a Hydroxide ion OH
one atomic unit of any substance will contain 6.022 x 1023 atom or molecules dependign on the substance