BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 13
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What are the processes of the Oropharynx and esophagus?
- Salivary secretion
What are the function so chewing?
- Increases surface area
- Mixes food with saliva
How is Chewing controlled?
somatic nerves that control jaw and mouth skeletal muscles
Is chewing voluntary or involuntary?
Usually and involuntary reflex
How is the chewing reflex activated?
- mechanorecptors are stimulated in the mouth which causes inhibition of mastication and jaw dropping
- Jaw dropping lessens mechanorecptor stimulus and causes biting
- Happens cyclically
What is salivary secretion made of?
- Salt and water
What is the purpose of salt and water in the salivary secretions?
What is the purpose of mucus in the salivary secretions?
What is the purpose of amylase in the salivary secretions?
initiates polysaccharide digestion
What is salivary secretion controlled by?
- neural reflexes
- NO HORMONES
Are hormones involved in salivary secretion stimulation?
What increases salivary secretions?
Presence of food in the mouth
What are the stimuli for salivary secretions?
- Food bolusWhat parts of the CNS are important for salivary secretions?
The greatest response of salivary secretions is mediated by what parts of the NS?
What part of the hindbrain is involved in salivary secretions?
Dorsal vagal complex
What is the purpose of swallowing?
Moves food bolus to the stomach
What controls swallowing?
Complex neural reflexes in hindbrain medulla oblongata
What are the two phases of swallowing?
- oropharyngeal phase
- esophageal phase
What is the epiglottis's role in swallowing?
To block the trachea
How does the tongue play a role in stimulation of swallowing?
Pushes bolus to the back of the mouth where it can stimulate mechanorecptors
After swallowing mechanorecptors are stimulated in the back of the mouth, what anatomical changes occur?
- The medulla oblongota integrates the information
- Respiration is inhibited
- The larynx is raised
- The glottis is closed
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