BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 13

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BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 13
2013-05-02 17:40:19
BIOL 404 Exam GI 13

BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 13
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  1. What are the processes of the Oropharynx and esophagus?
    • Chewing
    • Salivary secretion
    • Swallowing
  2. What are the function so chewing?
    • Increases surface area
    • Mixes food with saliva
  3. How is Chewing controlled?
    somatic nerves that control jaw and mouth skeletal muscles
  4. Is chewing voluntary or involuntary?
    Usually and involuntary reflex
  5. How is the chewing reflex activated?
    • mechanorecptors are stimulated in the mouth which causes inhibition of mastication and jaw dropping
    • Jaw dropping lessens mechanorecptor stimulus and causes biting
    • Happens cyclically
  6. What is salivary secretion made of?
    • Salt and water
    • mucus
    • Amylase
  7. What is the purpose of salt and water in the salivary secretions?
    Moistens food
  8. What is the purpose of mucus in the salivary secretions?
    lubricates tissues
  9. What is the purpose of amylase in the salivary secretions?
    initiates polysaccharide digestion
  10. What is salivary secretion controlled by?
    • neural reflexes
  11. Are hormones involved in salivary secretion stimulation?
  12. What increases salivary secretions?
    Presence of food in the mouth
  13. What are the stimuli for salivary secretions?
    • Acid
    • Food bolusWhat parts of the CNS are important for salivary secretions?
    • Hindbrain
    • PNS
    • SNS
  14. The greatest response of salivary secretions is mediated by what parts of the NS?
  15. What part of the hindbrain is involved in salivary secretions?
    Dorsal vagal complex
  16. What is the purpose of swallowing?
    Moves food bolus to the stomach
  17. What controls swallowing?
    Complex neural reflexes in hindbrain medulla oblongata
  18. What are the two phases of swallowing?
    • oropharyngeal phase
    • esophageal phase
  19. What is the epiglottis's role in swallowing?
    To block the trachea
  20. How does the tongue play a role in stimulation of swallowing?
    Pushes bolus to the back of the mouth where it can stimulate mechanorecptors
  21. After swallowing mechanorecptors are stimulated in the back of the mouth, what anatomical changes occur?
    • The medulla oblongota integrates the information
    • Respiration is inhibited
    • The larynx is raised
    • The glottis is closed