BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 17

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kyleannkelsey
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217325
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BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 17
Updated:
2013-05-02 17:43:24
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BIOL 404 Exam GI 17
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BIOL 404-Exam 4-GI 17
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  1. The force of peristaltic contractions is controlled for what purpose?
    To regulate gastric emptying
  2. What regulates gastric emptying?
    The force of peristaltic contractions
  3. What is the function of gastric peristaltic contractions?
    • To move food through the GI
    • Break food into smaller particles
    • Mix food with salivary and gastric secretions
  4. How much food can the stomach hold?
    1500mL
  5. ENS neurons inhibit smooth muscle contractions in the stomach by releasing what?
    • NO
    • Vasoactive intestinal peptide
  6. What chemical messengers inhibit smooth muscle contraction in the stomach?
    • NO
    • Vasoactive intestinal peptide
  7. What is it called when the stomach is relaxing to accept food?
    Receptive relaxation
  8. What is receptive relaxation?
    When the stomach is relaxing to accept food
  9. Approximately how often does a peristaltic wave of contraction arises in the body of the stomach and migrates to the pyloric sphincter?
    every 20 seconds
  10. Where do peristaltic waves originate from in the stomach?
    The body
  11. What cells initiate the peristaltic waves of the stomach?
    Pacemaker cells in the longitudinal smooth muscle
  12. What do Pacemaker cells in the longitudinal smooth muscle do?
    initiate the peristaltic waves of the stomach
  13. Why do peristaltic waves pass through the stomach every 20 seconds?
    Pacemaker cells undergo spontaneous membrane depolarization-repolarization cycle every 20 seconds
  14. How does depolarization of pacemaker cells generate contraction in the smooth muscle of the stomach?
    Electrical waves are conducted across gap junctions along the longitudinal muscle layer and into circular muscle to produce a ring of contraction that moves toward the pylorus
  15. What is the basal electrical rhythm of the stomach?
    The peristaltic contraction cycle
  16. What is the term for the peristaltic contraction cycle?
    Basal electrical rhythm of the stomach
  17. What determines the force of contraction of peristaltic waves?
    • number of action potentials generated
    • Excitatory Hormones
    • Neural ENS input
  18. Peristaltic waves are fast or slow?
    Slow
  19. Excitatory neurotransmitters and hormones can increase _______of peristaltic waves?
    Force
  20. Excitatory neurotransmitters and hormones can NOT increase _______of peristaltic waves?
    Frequency
  21. What is gastric emptying directly proportional to?
    Force of peristaltic contractions in the gastric antrum
  22. The Force of peristaltic contractions in the gastric antrum is directly proportional to what?
    Gastric Emptying
  23. What three phases of control are there for gastric emptying?
    • Cephalic
    • Gastric
    • Intestinal

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